Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2362
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by Never Assan, Enock Muteyo, Edmore Masama, Takudzwa Mafigu, Tinashe Mujati
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2024 , 5(2);    142 Views
Abstract African animal genetic resources are diverse and have been the subject of crossbreeding for decades to improve local livestock and poultry populations. However, the literature on crossbreeding performance has been inconsistent, with many projects failing due to various reasons. This has led to mixed support and criticism for crossbreeding in small-scale animal agriculture. The review examines the achievements, problems, and future prospects for livestock and poultry genetic improvement through crossbreeding in Africa’s small-scale animal agriculture. Community-based Breeding Practices (CBBP) can be seen as a community livestock development strategy that mobilizes local animal genetic resources and boosts smallholder livestock producers’ ability to collaborate in resource-scarce communities. Genome sequencing is seen as the future cornerstone of promoting crossbreeding in Africa, but it should be based on consideration of the socioeconomic context of small-scale animal husbandry and local livestock production conditions. Smallholder farmers, who are the major custodians of local animal biodiversity, have faced challenges such as genotype and environmental interaction, lack of funding, poor laws, and lack of farmer participation. In conclusion, the review highlights the importance of phenomics and genomic prediction in improving animal genetic resources in Africa, but it also emphasizes the need for further research and development in this area. The study suggests that modern breeding technologies (genomics and phenomics) and training of smallholder livestock farmers in improved animal husbandry management practices can be used to enhance food and nutrition security for African rural households. This review examines the effects of crossbreeding through the decades on small-scale livestock farming in Africa, including positive and negative outcomes as well as future implications.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2538
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by Moch Rafli Kusoiry, Lalu Muhamad Jaelani, Hartanto Sanjaya
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2024 , 5(2);    181 Views
Abstract Remote sensing technology has increasingly emerged as a potent tool for precision agriculture, particularly in facilitating the mapping and monitoring of crops on a large scale. An application of this technology is the identification of different types of rice by analyzing the pixels acquired in satellite images. Regrettably, the pixels in the image have been mixed from different recorded items. Therefore, they have the potential to influence the outcome of the identification. An effective approach to addressing this problem is to employ the linear spectral unmixing (LSU) technique. The LSU approach quantifies the ratio of pure objects in every pixel of an image by utilizing the spectral value associated with the endmember of the rice variety. The investigation was carried out in the Karangjati District during the generative stage (70 ± DAP) of the rice planting season. The data indicates that the dominant variety is Inpari 32 HDB. The data validation tests, which involved the use of a confusion matrix and Kappa analysis, resulted in an overall accuracy rate of 85.48% and a Kappa analysis score of 70.6%.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 2521
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by Suresh Chand Rai, Prem Sagar Chapagain, Shobha Shrestha, Linshan Liu, Basanta Paudel, Yili Zhang, Jianzhong Yan, Md. Nurul Islam
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2024 , 5(2);    116 Views
Abstract India’s agriculture and fishing sectors confront significant challenges due to climate change because of its distinctive geographical location and predominantly agrarian economy, highlighting the urgent need for institutional frameworks and effective adaptation strategies. This study delves into the current state of institutional structures and policies aimed at climate change adaptation within these key sectors in India. Through an exhaustive analysis of literature, official reports, and policy documents, the research evaluates the policies and interventions implemented to mitigate the impacts of climate change on agriculture and fisheries. Several policies are in place to facilitate the planning, establishment, and implementation of adaptation programs at the national and regional scales in the country. However, given India’s broad geographical size and varied socio-cultural settings, the adaptation requirements of diverse sectors and susceptible populations are still not sufficiently recognized and addressed. Key areas under scrutiny include crop diversification, water management techniques, technological advancements, and community-based adaptation approaches. Furthermore, the study evaluates the effectiveness of existing institutional arrangements, including governmental bodies, academic institutions, and community organizations, in fostering climate resilience across different domains. By synthesizing insights from diverse sources, this research aims to offer valuable perspectives on the institutional dynamics and policy landscape shaping climate change adaptation efforts in India’s agriculture and fisheries sectors to build resilience and sustainability. This research paper highlights some of the evolving as well as existing adaptation requirements and suggests how new research, policy, and practice engagements could meet these requirements.
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