Intelligent fertigation stands as a pivotal pillar of sustainable agriculture. This issue features diverse research topics that collectively underscore the critical role of intelligent fertigation in promoting sustainable agricultural practices. From biofertilization alternatives and modern irrigation technologies to the evaluation of agricultural machinery operation and water use efficiency, these studies highlight the multifaceted impact of fertigation systems on enhancing crop productivity, resource management, and environmental sustainability, and emphasize the significance of advanced techniques and technologies in fostering a more efficient, environmentally conscious approach to agricultural production.
Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2536
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by Farideh Yarahmadi, Mohammad Mehdi Motiei, Lotfollah Abdollahi, Mojtaba Abdi Karamvand
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    37 Views
Abstract In the Khuzestan province of Iran, sugarcane harvesting is normally carried out between the early November and March periods, when rain and frost risks occur. This results in delayed harvesting and reduced profitability due to cane deterioration and a reduction in cane sucrose content. Management strategies such as the application of chemical ripeners were hypothesized to tackle such challenges by harvesting the crop earlier when the natural ripening condition was poor. Consequently, paraquat and roundup herbicides were applied as chemical ripeners to investigate the effect of their application time and rate on accelerating the ripening quality of the sugar cane variety SP70-1143 using a split-plot design. The treatments were control (unsprayed) [T0]; 1.0 Lha −1 Paraquat (250 ppm) applied 8 weeks before harvesting (8WBH) [T1]; 0.8 Lha −1 Roundup (200 ppm) applied 8WBH [T2]; 1.0 Lha −1 Paraquat (250 ppm) applied 5 weeks before harvesting (5WBH) [T3], and 0.8 Lha −1 Roundup (200 ppm) applied 5WBH [T4]. The results indicated that the glyphosate application treatments T2 and T4 induced a significant improvement in the sugarcane juice quality through an increase in Brix%, Pol%, %purity, and commercial cane sugar (CCS%) starting 1 week after their application. The results also confirmed the feasibility of an earlier harvesting operation on November 1st, one month before normal harvesting time in the study area, without significant loss of sucrose by application of 0.8 Lha −1 Glyphosate (roundup), 8WBH.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2017
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by Enrique Almeida Maldonado, Lorenzo Eddy Camejo Barreiro, Cosme E. Santiesteban Toca
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    80 Views
Abstract The growing demand for food in the country has required an increase in agricultural production levels and, with it, an increase in irrigation systems. Among the most widespread are central pivot irrigation systems, but their large number and variety make their optimal configuration difficult, generating overexploitation of natural resources such as water and threatening the sustainability of agriculture and the country. For this reason, the objective of this research was to implement software that would allow obtaining the appropriate configuration of this equipment using information on the type of crop, the agro-climatic conditions of the region, and the soil in order to obtain maximum utilization. As a result, an application capable of performing the calculations so that the value of water delivered by the system is closer to the estimated needs for a crop in each of its phases was achieved. To demonstrate this, an experimental study was carried out in field conditions in the agricultural enterprise La Cuba in Ciego de Avila; it showed that, with the use of the software, there was a saving of up to 94.5% of the water previously misused. In addition, the level of liquid provided allows the sowing to be in better conditions to reach its optimum yield. As an added value, the software has a minimalist and intuitive interface, which allows real-time visualization of field information.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2021
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by Alejandro Moreno Reséndez, Verónica García Mendoza, José Luis Reyes Carrillo, Jesús Vásquez Arroyo, Pedro Cano Ríos
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    77 Views
Abstract In order to maximize agricultural yields and reduce environmental effect, modern agriculture must overcome new obstacles in the integration of ecological and molecular approaches. Synthetic fertilizer doses per unit area have been greatly raised to produce larger yields, but this has resulted in pollution, health problems, and a loss of soil fertility, making it one of the biggest issues in agricultural production. Research has focused on developing new biotechnologies to increase production without the use of synthetic fertilizers, which has sparked interest in beneficial soil microorganisms that can encourage plant growth and, in certain situations, guard against pathogen infections of plant tissue. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have intricate interactions with the biotic environment of microorganisms and plants, and they use many methods of action to support plant growth. These methods fall into three categories: 1) phytostimulation; 2) biocontrol; and 3) biofertilization. When crops are injected with PGRP, it significantly lowers the usage of synthetic fertilizers and their detrimental effects on the soil, boosts crop yields, and benefits the economy of the producer as well as the supply of food for the general public. The advantages that CVPGRs provide to agricultural activities are the main topic of this review, which also covers the fundamental elements of the relationship between CVPGRs and plant species.
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Article
Article ID: 2057
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by Jialing Liu, Jixiang Wan, Hao Li, Yue Jiang
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    73 Views
Abstract Objective: The study sought to investigate the distribution law of the diameter, velocity, and kinetic energy of water droplets in specially designed nozzles. Method: An indoor windless water droplet dispersion test on the PY15 rocker-arm sprinkler was performed using a video raindrop spectrometer at five working pressures: 100 kPa, 150 kPa, 200 kPa, 250 kPa, and 300 kPa. Result: The equal-flow nozzle has the following range: circle > rhombus > ellipse; the shape coefficient of the special-shaped nozzle decreases with increasing outlet diameter and increases with increasing aspect ratio; the diameter of the rhombus nozzle’s water droplet increases radially. Conclusion: Under the same working pressure, the diameter of the water droplet at the end decreases as the form coefficient increases. The wider the outlet’s diameter, the longer the range and the greater the increase in the velocity of the water droplets. The larger the aspect ratio, the shorter the range and the greater the average diameter and velocity of the droplets. The elliptical nozzle has the lowest droplet velocity increase as droplet diameter increases. The impacting kinetic energy and growth range of water droplets per unit volume at the same position decrease as the pressure increases. Along the radial direction, the droplet velocity and diameter are logarithmic, while the droplet kinetic energy and diameter are exponential and linear functions. The relationship between the shape coefficient, outlet diameter, aspect ratio, and droplet distribution characteristics of the shaped nozzle can be simulated using the fitting coefficients of the three droplet distribution prediction models, all of which are above 0.9.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2081
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by Xin Yi, Li Cheng
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    63 Views
Abstract Based on the panel data from 2000 to 2018, the super efficiency SBM-DEA model is used to calculate the agricultural green development efficiency of 11 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River economic belt, and then the Tobit econometric model is used to empirically test the impact of Internet technology popularization on the agricultural green development of the Yangtze River economic belt. The results show that: (1) on the whole, the efficiency of agricultural green development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt showed a downward trend in fluctuations from 2000 to 2018; in terms of regions, the efficiency of agricultural green development in various regions of the Yangtze River Economic Belt varies greatly, showing a spatial pattern of “downstream > upstream > midstream”. (2) The popularization of Internet technology has significantly promoted the green development of agriculture in the Yangtze River Economic Belt; at the same time, there is a significant positive correlation between rural human capital and the green development of agriculture in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, while the level of agricultural mechanization, the degree of capital deepening, the level of urbanization, and agricultural economic growth inhibit the improvement of the green development of agriculture in the Yangtze River Economic Belt to a certain extent. Therefore, the local governments of the Yangtze River Economic Belt should actively promote the popularization of Internet technology, enhance the Internet awareness of farmers, and give better play to the enabling role of Internet technology in the green development of agriculture in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2092
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by José Edwin Cuéllar Saavedra
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    103 Views
Abstract Transgenic technology promises to eradicate hunger and poverty worldwide, among other sustainable development goals, and as a result, its acceptance is increasing. However, there are perspectives that highlight the challenges raised by such expansion. This paper is a reflection on a study effort on the bioethical consequences of using transgenic technology in agriculture in Colombia. The goal is to prove that this adoption poses a bioethical danger. The paper, on the one hand, addresses the problem that arises from confronting arguments for and against the adoption of this technology, while also noting the absolute importance of the economic aspect in the provision of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the general difficulties of Colombian national regulations regarding GMO control and surveillance. Finally, it discusses the bioethical implications of adoption, beginning with the illusion of a transformational technology and progressing via the political will of the government to its eventual delivery to consumers.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2093
by Yuan Shen, Haihou Wang, Yueyue Tao, Changying Lu, Linlin Dong, Linlin Shi, Meijuan Jin, Xinwei Zhou, Mingxing Shen
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    57 Views
Abstract Modern circular agriculture aims to minimize the number of external outputs for less impact on the environment in the complex ecosystem and the circular economy of the industry chains. Therefore, the green development of agriculture can be achieved to promote rural revitalization in China. However, accurate data support and parameter matching are still lacking in most operation of circular agriculture. Fortunately, the life cycle assessment can serve as an effective tool to evaluate the environmental impact of the entire chains in the product systems, further improving the circulating efficiency of the systems in recent years. In this study, an empirical investigation using the life cycle assessment was performed on the modern “straw-sheep-cropland” agro-pastoral system located in the northeast of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. Six types of potential environmental impacts were evaluated from the sufficient data collection and tracking survey using the data characterization, standardization, and weighted summation, including the acidification potential, global warming potential, terrestrial ecotoxicity, human toxicity, freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity, and eutrophication potential. And then the environmental service energy was compared for the emission degradation before and after the regulation. The energy was calculated to consume the pollution dilution for a safe concentration. The results showed that fertilization was an important factor in the environmental performance of the cereal cropping subsystem during the wheat- and rice-growing seasons. The types of potential environmental impacts from the feed producing and sheep raising subsystems were more than 85% of the total impacts, which were much higher than that of the cereal cropping and organic composting subsystems. The environmental impacts of human toxicity and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity were greater in each subsystem, whereas, that of terrestrial ecotoxicity was the least. After life cycle assessment, the annual environmental service energies of air, water, and soil to realize the emission degradation were 7.42×1010, 6.03×1016, and 1.59×1012 J, respectively, according to the threshold concentration of index pollutants. Subsequently, the scales of feed producing and organic composting subsystems were adjusted in line with the matching output with the input of successive subsystems, particularly under the steady production scale of cereal cropping and sheep raising subsystems. A simulated regulation was also conducted to optimize the parameters and key technologies. It was estimated that the annual environmental service energies of air, water, and soil were reduced by 52%, 44%, and 21%, respectively, compared with the original. In conclusion, a new system was formed with excellent sustainability and replication to evaluate and regulate the modern agro-pastoral system using the life cycle assessment. The finding can provide a strong reference for the optimal regulation of modern agricultural systems in diverse regions. In the future research, the local life cycle inventory database can be constructed for the life cycle assessment.
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Article
Article ID: 2094
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by Valverde-Lucio Yhony, Moreno-Quinto Josselyn, Quijije-Quiroz Karen, Castro-Landín Alfredo, Merchán-García Williams, Gabriel-Ortega Julio
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    96 Views
Abstract The research was conducted in Jipijapa, in the town of Andil. The objective was to evaluate the physiological and morphological behavior of arabica coffee in the nursery stage with the application of biostimulants: starlite, humega, micorriza, and evergreen, compared to urea. A completely randomized experimental design was applied, using a factorial arrangement of repetitions in time for the morphological variables, and Tukey’s test was applied based on the statistical differences found. The results obtained at the physiological level established a significant difference ( p < 0.05) in the variables dry matter, moisture, and nitrogen (N), with starlite and evergreen biostimulants being the best in DM and humega and evergreen in N content. There was a better response to chlorophyll (Cl) assimilation by all biostimulants, surpassing urea in general, with micorriza and starlite being the best, establishing a high positive correlation between N and chlorophyll. In terms of morphological development, Urea showed a better response, and at the biostimulant level, humega and micorriza showed better results, all between 90 and 120 days.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2390
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by Tanaji Shivaji Bhagat
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    24 Views
Abstract Alginic acid products are widely used in all fields, and the main source of alginic acid is seaweed. Alginic acid varies in various varieties of seaweed, plant parts, season to season, and the temperature of the water in which it is grown. The content of alginic acid also varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, as it depends on the process of extraction. No full-proof method for quantification is available. As alginic acid became a point of concern for regulators, a robust method for quantifying alginic acid became a prime requirement. As seaweed is only considered a source of alginic acid, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids, other sources need to be identified to overcome future needs and maintain biodiversity. The author succeeds in identifying another source of alginic acid, nutrients, and amino acids, i.e., Chromolaena odorata leaf extract, which contains about 5 to 6% alginic acid and 30 to 40% amino acids and proteins. A novel RP-HPLC method was found to be simple, suitable, and robust for the determination of alginic acid content in seaweed extract, its formulations, and also in phytoextracts ( Chromolaena odorata leaf extract). The alginic acid content in seaweed and the formulated product quantified shows 10.05 ± 0.1% and 1.0 ± 0.03%, respectively, and is in close agreement with the declared content. Various authors have used gravimetric, colorimetric, titrimetric, and HPLC methods, each with their own limitations. The novel method is simple in terms of sensitivity, eco-friendly mobile phase, regular HPLC column and detector, lowest retention time (rapid analysis), and no internal standard required.
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Open Access
Editorial
Article ID: 2703
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by Riaz Ahmad
Advan. Mod. Agr. 2023 , 4(1);    37 Views
Abstract
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