Sustainable tourism aims to strike a balance between the needs of tourists, the environment, local communities, and the tourism industry itself. It focuses on long-term, responsible, and ethical practices that ensure the sustainability of the tourism sector for present and future generations. The latest issue of Smart Tourism covers a wide range of topics related to sustainable tourism. This includes insights into cultural considerations, development strategies, technological innovations, security, community involvement, and destination competitiveness. The articles in this issue bring readers new perspectives on how to best balance the economic, social, and environmental needs of tourism. The goal is to ensure that tourism becomes a positive force for both visitors and host communities in the long term.

Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2463
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by José Manuel Mas, Kathrin Jaszus, Andrés Gómez, Fernando García Monleon
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    396 Views
Abstract The importance of the image of the tourist destination in the communication and marketing of a tourist destination is beyond doubt. For this reason, numerous studies address these issues. However, not so many do so from the perspective of the emotion the receiver feels, which is why this study deals with analyzing the emotion generated in the receiver through neuromarketing techniques and measuring the level of engagement felt. As a fundamental part of this study, we added the variable of cultural differences, both generically and specifically for gender and age. We are mainly guided by the theories of Life Cycle Theory and Generational Theory to analyze age differences. At the same time, gender differences are approached from the Gender Role Theory. The sample comprises hundred individuals with apparent cultural differences, one sample of German origin and residence and the other of Spanish origin and residence, 50/50. We approached the study from the point of view of the emotion felt by the receiver of the message based on ten neuromarketing techniques (EGG) and ten images used by a famous tourist destination known in both countries. The results suggest that not only are there differences in the emotion felt after viewing images of a tourist destination, but that these differences are also explained by cultural background, gender, and age.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2491
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by Bruno Marques
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    177 Views
Abstract The internationally adopted definition of tourism prompts to develop a systemic dynamic approach of tourism development. The paper proposes to conceptualize tourism development as a system interlinking three agents: transport, domestic tourism activities and the visitor; generating three types of development tourism development dynamics. In a second step, it uses this framework to develop, with a minimalist set of hypotheses, a capacity-based model enabling to consider destination tourism development as a microfounded supply-driven systemic dynamic process. Through the lens of the model, exhaustion or asymmetric distribution of market power may halt destination tourism development. Using the model’s framework, the structuring forces of the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) are explained by the dual impact of capacity dynamics: accelerating by increasing arrivals, and at the same time decelerating by declining price elasticities.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2517
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by Said Muzambiq, Robert Sibarani, Zaid Perdana Nasution, Gustanto Gustanto
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    147 Views
Abstract Geoheritage is recognized as a component of cultural heritage, especially in the Toba Caldera Geopark area. The aim of the research is to determine the relationship between geoheritage and cultural heritage in the concept of abiotic ecosystems. The research method used in this research is empirical juridical or non-doctrinal with a sociological/empirical approach using a non-positivist approach, including reference studies and observations. The research results describe sarcophagi and megaliths carved from Toba tuff rock estimated to be 73,500 years old during the Pleistocene period and andesite lava 33,000 years old from the eruption of the Toba volcano.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2534
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by Mohammad Shahidul Islam
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    211 Views
Abstract This commentary critically examines the integration of Smart Tourism technologies within the tourism and hospitality sectors, focusing on their role in enhancing tourist experiences and operational efficiencies. Through a multidisciplinary approach encompassing a literature review, case studies, and empirical data analysis, the analysis adopts a constructivist perspective to explore tourists’ subjective experiences with technology. It highlights significant personalization, efficiency, and sustainability advancements while acknowledging challenges related to digital infrastructure and privacy concerns. Advocating for a balanced and sustainable approach that respects environmental integrity and cultural heritage, the commentary concludes with recommendations for future research on the socio-economic impacts of Smart Tourism, ethical data usage, and the adaptation of technologies to diverse contexts. It calls for increased investment in digital infrastructure and stakeholder collaborative efforts to promote sustainable and inclusive tourism development.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2485
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by Mohammad Sayed Noor, Narariya Dita Handani
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    178 Views
Abstract This study conducted an analysis of 1500 user generated content from Google Travel to examine the factors influencing airport services and customer perceptions. Quantitative textual analysis is employed to extract meaningful insights. Our findings highlighted the most frequently used words in airport user generated content, reflecting critical aspects of airport experiences such as the airport itself, the quality of service, and international travel. A cluster analysis revealed five distinct clusters, representing flight operations, location, views, customer feelings, and intangible services. A co-occurrence network analysis showed strong correlations among keywords associated with positive experiences, underscoring the importance of service quality and infrastructure in customer satisfaction. Furthermore, through topic modeling, we categorized words into five distinct groups: airport flights, ground services, international services, customer experience, and location. The practical implications of this study are substantial. The insights can help airport management identify strengths and areas needing improvement, ultimately enhancing customer satisfaction and the overall airport experience.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2495
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by Tanya Arenas, Julián Patiño, Miguel Ángel Martínez, Humberto Dorantes, Mauricio Chávez
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    160 Views
Abstract Nowadays hyperconnectivity provides an opportunity for tourism industry to benefit from big data analytics as determining competitive factor, for decision making, product design and assertive marketing strategies for target segments; but at the same time, having financial, organizational and personal information stored in cyberspace and available to many users makes vulnerable to security risks like phishing and hacking, both common cybercrimes that affect tourism sector. This paper, introduces representation and model design stages of our own methodology based on self-organization approach that we propose to reinforce cybersecurity in tourism, as part of a research project founded by National Council for Science and Technology postdoctoral scholarship for Mexico.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2477
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by Irhanida Abdul Kadir, Leon Ni Chew
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    257 Views
Abstract This research explores the untapped tourism potential of three tranquil villages in Bukit Tengah, Penang, Malaysia. Its overarching strategy is to foster sustainability and economic growth, particularly in the B40 communities of the area. Employing mixed-methods research, the study evaluates tourism products through systematic weighted scoring, questionnaire surveys, and interviews with key informants and tourism stakeholders. The sustainable development theory is used in this study as a conceptual framework for rural tourism development, emphasising the integration of economic, social, and environmental dimensions to ensure long-term viability and benefits for local communities. The results indicate the latent potential for rural tourism development in the three villages, contingent upon garnering local support and collaborating with tourism stakeholders. The study highlights the capacity of rural tourism promotion in generating additional income for the local population, thus promoting both environmental sustainability and community well-being. These findings align with the state government’s goal of achieving balanced tourism growth between the island and Seberang Prai regions. Moreover, this research also aligns with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 8 and 11, recognising the role of tourism in achieving goals such as poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, and community well-being, all of which are relevant to rural tourism development.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2484
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by Saulius Papečkys, Edmundas Jasinskas
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    135 Views
Abstract The sustainable development of tourism destinations is a continual and evolving process crucial for long-term value and well-being. However, the existing literature reveals a gap in understanding how to effectively evaluate the sustainable development of tourism objects, with a predominant focus on developed countries. This raises concerns about the applicability of similar strategies in underdeveloped nations. This study employs an analysis of the scientific literature to address the identified research problem. We propose a more inclusive and comprehensive approach to sustainable tourism management, aiming to equalize the distribution of economic, social, and cultural dimensions. Our focus is on developing a theoretical evaluation model that goes beyond conventional frameworks and includes both broad and narrow dimensions. The research uncovers that sustainable development, as presented by various authors, encompasses economic benefits, environmental protection, and social dimension management. We introduce a sustainability management model that surpasses existing systems, offering a holistic perspective. Moreover, we emphasize the significance of voluntary publicity for environmental and socio-cultural activities in enhancing a tourism destination’s image and societal value. Our study contributes a theoretical evaluation model based on global criteria for sustainable tourism. This model not only evaluates the dimensions of coherence broadly but also incorporates specific criteria for a nuanced analysis of the current situation and potential opportunities. The proposed framework aims to guide tourism destinations in achieving economic benefits without compromising the environment and prioritizing the well-being of local communities, thus fostering a more sustainable and equitable development process.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2543
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by Terry Theodore Iskandar, Indrapriya Kularatne
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    132 Views
Abstract This research studies Australian travellers’ satisfaction with traditional accommodations in Invercargill, New Zealand and the aim is to explore Australian travellers’ satisfaction with traditional accommodations in this city. This descriptive research uses content analysis based on 256 online reviews gathered from online travel platforms and analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The research results distinguish that Australian travellers in Invercargill were mostly couples who stayed two days or less in motels and hotels. The quantitative results indicate that most Australian travellers gave moderate satisfaction ratings, with no significant differences across different accommodation types and traveller categories. The qualitative analysis revealed that Australian travellers generally expressed satisfaction with room, service, and accommodation characteristics but identified areas for improvement, including indoor environment, bathroom, soundproofing, service quality, and certain aspects of accommodation characteristics. The study recommends that managers of traditional accommodations should make improvements based on negative feedback from Australian travellers.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2559
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by José Carlos Collado-González, Alejandro Alcalá-Ordoñez, Pablo Juan Cárdenas-García
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    70 Views
Abstract Currently, within the tourism market, there is a significant number of destinations that offer the same product, especially in the sun and beach market, so the search for competitiveness must be the objective that allows increasing the arrival of tourists to a destination, becoming one of the main pillars on which tourism policies are based. In this context, this paper aims is to ascertain whether there exists a causal relationship between tourism competitiveness and the influx of tourists to destinations. To achieve this, the Granger causality test is utilized, employing the econometric adaptation conducted by Dumitrescu and Hurlin, utilizing a sample of 18 Mediterranean countries spanning from 2007 to 2019. From the analysis carried out, it is highlighted that there is no causal relationship from tourism competitiveness to the number of tourists received, which is an important finding in the countries of the Mediterranean coast, since tourists do not value competitiveness in these destinations.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2561
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by Samikshya Poudel, Devid Kumar Basyal, Niranjan Devkota, Udaya Raj Paudel, Purnima Lawaju, Ranjana Kumari Danuwar
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    119 Views
Abstract Tourism development involves sustainably creating and managing destinations, products, and services that balance economic, social, and environmental factors while meeting visitor and local community expectations. The purpose of this study is to understand the local people’s perception of tourism development in Pokhara, Nepal. An explanatory research design is used to show the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. The research was conducted using Social Exchange Theory (SET). The data was examined using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The sample size was determined to be 403 using non-probability sampling. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect the data using the KOBO toolbox. Furthermore, the Structure Equation Model (SEM) was the analytical approach used to process the data. Results reveal a noteworthy relationship between independent variables (such as cultural impact, social impact, environmental impact, and economic impact) and dependent variables (support for tourism development). The major challenges in tourism development have been identified, including deficient infrastructure, suboptimal tourism strategies and implementation, and inadequate government oversight. Effective mitigation of these challenges necessitates the implementation of appropriate infrastructure and development initiatives, proficient governmental management, and a concerted effort to augment the quantity and quality of hotels and accommodations. The significance of cultural, social, environmental, and economic impact cannot be understated or overstated in the context of tourism development. Addressing major challenges, the study suggests focused efforts in enhancing infrastructure and development, adopting effective management practices, and augmenting the quantity and quality of hotels and accommodations.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2556
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by Franciane Pereira Gonçalves, Dárlinton Barbosa Feres Carvalho, Vinícius Figueiredo de Faria, Matheus Carvalho Viana, Elverton Carvalho Fazzion, Fábio Corrêa
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    66 Views
Abstract Digital transformation is becoming increasingly essential for developing the global economy. Within this advancement framework lies the tourism industry, where the growing demand from travelers for new experiences drives the search for increasingly technological solutions. Among the many tourism segments are religious, natural, gastronomic, and cultural tourism. These, in turn, seek to offer travelers personalized options based on individual preferences and specific interests. Given the significant growth of Brazilian tourism in recent years, it seems coherent to enhance new technologies that can invigorate the sector. In this regard, this research proposes the development of a mobile application designed to assist users in creating personalized routes in the city of São João del-Rei (Brazil). The study employed design science research with software engineering methods to achieve the desired outcome. The result is the creation of the mobile application called UaiGuia, which provides a distinct approach to exploring the rich culture and tourist attractions in the city of São João del-Rei. The app’s main characteristic is allowing tourists to create routes based on their interests according to the local features. Moreover, access to cultural events, festivals, and other attractions via the application enhances the stay in the city even further, supporting a better immersion in the richness of the region’s heritage.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2632
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by Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Md Shamimul Islam
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    78 Views
Abstract In the dynamic and interconnected world of hospitality, smart hotel supply chains play a pivotal role in maintaining operational efficiency and service excellence. However, these supply chains are susceptible to many risks, including transportation disruptions, supplier insolvencies, and cybersecurity threats, which can severely impact business continuity and degrade service quality. This conceptual paper proposes a holistic framework for identifying, assessing, and mitigating supply chain risks within the context of smart hotels. By integrating advanced technologies and strategic management practices, this study aims to reinforce smart hotel supply chains against potential vulnerabilities, ensuring sustainable business operations and superior guest satisfaction. The paper explores various risk management measures and leverages supply chain management, hospitality, and cybersecurity insights to develop a robust risk management strategy tailored for smart hotels.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2526
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by Swati Lipsa, Ranjan Kumar Dash
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    55 Views
Abstract The tourism sector requires in-depth analysis and forecasting to provide a clear picture of various factors that affect the visits of foreign tourists to certain countries. In this context, the work carried out in this paper provides an in-depth analysis of the number of tourists to India and the revenue generated from them from the years 2014 to 2020. Furthermore, the analysis of the different states of India to which the tourists visited the most and the quarterly analysis of the tourists to India are also presented. The impact of the corona pandemic on the tourism sector of India is also shown by comparing the number of tourists in 2019 and 2020. Support vector regression (SVR) is trained with historical data on the number of tourists from 2001 to 2016 and validated for 2017 to 2019. This trained model is used to forecast the number of tourists from 2020 to 2023 to study the impact of corona pandemic on the number of foreign tourists to India. Similarly, historical data on foreign exchange fees from 2001 to 2016 is used to train the model, which is validated with data from 2017 to 2019. This train model is used to predict the Foreign Exchange Earning (FEE) for the years 2020 to 2022. The actual FEE is compared with the predicted FEE to show the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the revenue generated from tourism in India.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2700
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by Linyu Wang, Xiaohan Zhu, Hongbin Zhang, Chenhe Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Zhaochen Zhang
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    81 Views
Abstract Tourist hotels (or tourist accommodations) are located near tourist attractions, primarily serving tourists. In recent years, with the gradual improvement of people’s living standards around the globe, tourists’ demands and standards for tourist hotel construction have been rising accordingly. In the context of technologization and informatization, various hotel booking platforms (Agoda, Booking, Trip, etc.) cover a large amount of review data in evaluating systems to reflect tourists’ demands. Meanwhile, identifying demand-oriented reviews and extracting core consumer demands from them is crucial for optimizing hotel services and enhancing tourist satisfaction. Therefore, this study explores the demands of tourists in tourist hotels from the perspective of text sentiment analysis and takes Macao, a famous tourist destination, as an example, based on reviews of tourist hotels on the Agoda site platform. Specifics are as follows: (1) Based on pointwise mutual information (PMI) and information entropy (IE), it realizes the identification of sentiment words in the field of tourist hotels and constructs a sentiment dictionary to address the problem of poor relevance between word segmentation results; (2) It summarizes the five types of reviews containing tourist demands (positive, negative, suggestion, demand, and comparison) and their characteristics to solve the ambiguity of texts and further accurately reveal the main demands of tourists; (3) It classifies tourist demands and group similar tourist demands into the same categories to address the problem of multiple expressions for the same demand. The present study provides empirical experiences from Macao’s hotels and contributes to the literature on text sentiment analysis in tourist hotels. Furthermore, the study results could enhance the mining accuracy and provide a detailed summarization of consumer demands and directions for the sustainable optimization improvement of tourist services.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2635
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by Cindia Ching Chi Lam, Ying Zhao, Eliza Si Kei Leong
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    0 Views
Abstract This study investigates the application of knowledge gap theory in the context of tourism sustainability, examining the perceptions that varying types of tourists have about their own responsibilities to tourism sustainability, with regard to preferences on tourism information and travel modes. This study aims to develop a typology of tourists based on perceived self-responsibility towards tourism sustainability. A mixed-methods approach was employed, starting with the focus group followed by a survey. Data were gathered from three cities, resulting in 864 valid samples for the final analysis. The findings suggested that although most samples endorsed tourism sustainability indicators, obvious disparity was found in perceived self-responsibility across sample groups, particularly among those with a preference for digital information. Four distinct tourist types were identified based on their perceived self-responsibility on tourism sustainability. The results offer crucial insights for policymakers and industry stakeholders in fostering sustainable tourism practices for target tourist segments. By identifying and bridging knowledge gaps and customizing strategies to cater to various tourist demographics, a more responsible and sustainable approach to tourism can be cultivated.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2704
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by Asmita Oli, Niranjan Devkota, Ranjana Kumari Danuwar, Mijala Kayestha, Ajaya Dhakal, Deep Kumar Baral, Dhurba Prasad Timalsina, Amita Koirala, Devi Raman Tiwari
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    0 Views
Abstract The worldwide tourism industry alone expanded by 3.9% in 2018, contributing $8.8 trillion in sales and 319 million jobs to the global economy. The COVID-19 pandemic, which began to spread around the planet in 2020, had an impact on every aspect of life. Though many studies have explored COVID-19’s effects on tourism SMEs in Nepal, there’s a significant lack of research on their crisis management strategies during the pandemic. Thus, this study aims to measure the crisis management techniques used by small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in the Boudha Area during the COVID-19 epidemic. The study uses an explanatory research design to analyze a comprehensive understanding of how the Boudha Area’s SMEs in the tourism industry handled the crisis of SMEs in the Kathmandu Valley. Non-probability with convenient sampling is used for the study. Data is collected through 403 SMEs using a structural questionnaire, and data collection is done using Kobo Toolbox. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using Partial Least Squares (PLS) version 4.0 is adopted for data analysis. The result shows a significant relationship between cost control and expected assistance with crisis management, while marketing and organizational support have an insignificant relationship with crisis management. Similarly, during COVID-19, 90.82% of the businesses had closed their businesses, and 47.89% of SMEs had closed for 3 months. Additionally, 88.09% of SMEs faced losses during COVID-19, and to maintain the crisis 46.4% of SMEs used their income to handle crises during COVID-19, and 93.3% of SMEs reduced their expenses to manage the crisis.
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Open Access
Book Review
Article ID: 2529
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by Annette Toivonen
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    111 Views
Abstract N/A
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 2502
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by Hassan Ahmadzadeh, Majid Dadashpour Moghaddam
Smart. Tour. 2024 , 5(1);    133 Views
Abstract This research focuses on identifying and enhancing the capabilities and potentials of urban tourism with the aim of improving the brand image and personality in Tabriz City. The research methodology, given its practical nature, is based on the analytical-survey method. The statistical population includes all city managers and experts in the tourism sector of Tabriz City. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and the ANP and TOPSIS Fuzzy decision-making models were employed for prioritizing criteria. The results indicate that Tabriz City possesses exceptional tourism power, capacity, and potential. The examination of urban tourism capabilities and potentials in Tabriz demonstrates that its tourism capacity is particularly pronounced in the social, cultural, traditional, historical, and architectural domains. The social and cultural identity index of the city (celebrities, music) with a normalized weight of 0.0277, the presence of historical entities in the city with a normalized weight of 0.0274, the old context with traditional architecture (houses, mosques, etc.) with a normalized weight of 0.0272, great variety in souvenirs and food products with a normalized weight of 0.0271, creating a sense of belonging to a neighborhood among residents with a normalized weight of 0.0270, and special customs in the city (food styles, etc.) with a normalized weight of 0.0270 are among the most important indicators. Therefore, city managers and officials in the tourism sector of Tabriz should pay special attention to the social and cultural capacities and historical and architectural components to introduce Tabriz as a cultural and historical city at both the national and international levels. The tourism planning for Tabriz should be based on the city's cultural, architectural, and historical attractions.
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