Exploring the antifungal potential of Allium sativum and Ocimum gratissimum against post-harvest fungal pathogens in mango fruits

Okon Godwin Okon, Uwaidem Yakubu Ismaila, Ukponobong Efiong Antia, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Hafiz Haider Ali, Abdelhak Rhouma

Article ID: 2363
Vol 4, Issue 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.54517/ama.v4i2.2363
VIEWS - 321 (Abstract)


Post-harvest spoilage of fruits and vegetables caused by fungal pathogens is a serious challenge to fruit production in many parts of the world. The study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of fungal pathogens associated with post-harvest rot of mango fruits to crude extracts from two edible plants, Allium sativum and Ocimum gratissimum, in the study area. Five different fungal isolates were isolated from diseased mango fruits collected from fruit stores in the study area and identified as Aspergillus spp. (M1), Rhizopus spp. (M2), Fusarium spp. (M3), Penicillium spp. (M4), Fusarium spp. (M5), Penicillium spp. (M6), Aspergillus spp. (M7), and Colletotrichum spp. (M8) using radial growth rate and morphological features of the mycelia. A constant concentration of each of the crude extracts was applied to the growth media containing the growing cultures of the fungal isolates. The radial extension of the colonies for each isolate was measured along pre-marked perpendicular axes on the base of the petri dish after 24 h, and this continued for 10–14 days. It was observed that Rhizopus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and Colletotrichum spp. had the least growth rate when treated with the extracts.


Allium sativum; Ocimum gratissimum; fungal pathogens; mango fruits

Full Text:



1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Crops and livestock products. Available online: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCL (accessed on 30 September 2023).

2. Yadav D, Singh SP. Mango: History origin and distribution. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2017; 6(6): 1257–1262.

3. Kim H, Castellon-Chicas MJ, Arbizu S, et al. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) polyphenols: Anti-inflammatory intestinal microbial health benefits, and associated mechanisms of actions. Molecules 2021; 26(9): 2732. doi: 10.3390/molecules26092732

4. Gold-Smith F, Fernandez A, Bishop K. Mangiferin and cancer: Mechanisms of action. Nutrients 2016; 8(7): 396. doi: 10.3390/nu8070396

5. Yahia EHM. Postharvest Handling of Mango: Technical Report. Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer/RONCO; 1999.

6. Yahaya SM, Mardiyya AY. Review of post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research 2019; 13(4): 10192–10200. doi: 10.26717/BJSTR.2019.13.002448

7. Abdulkhair WM, Alghuthaymi MA. Plant pathogens. In: Rigobelo EC (editor). Plant Growth. IntechOpen; 2016. pp. 49–59. doi: 10.5772/65325

8. Ladaniya M. Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation, 1st ed. Academic Press; 2010. 886p.

9. Fatima N, Batool H, Sultana V, et al. Prevalence of post-harvest rot of vegetables and fruits in Karachi, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 2009; 41(6): 3185–3190.

10. Mailafia S, Olabode HO, Osanupin R. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria. Veterinary World 2017; 10(4): 393–397. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.393-397

11. Karunanayake LC, Sinniah GD, Adikaram NK, Abayasekara CL. Alternatives to synthetic fungicides in controlling postharvest anthracnose and stem-end rot in mango. In: Proceedings of the III International Symposium on Postharvest Pathology: Using Science to Increase Food Availability; 7–11 June 2015; Bari, Italy. pp. 453–460. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1144.67

12. Prusky D, Shalom Y, Kobiler I, et al. The level of quiescent infection of Alternaria alternata in mango fruits at harvest determines the postharvest treatment applied for the control of rots during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 2002; 25(3): 339–347. doi: 10.1016/S0925-5214(01)00169-7

13. Pujari KH, Joshi MS, Shedge MS. Management of postharvest fruit rot of mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. In: Golding JB, Heyes JA, Toivonen PMA (editors). XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014), Proceedings of International Symposia on Postharvest Knowledge for the Future and Consumer and Sensory Driven Improvements to Fruits and Nuts; 17–22 August 2014; Brisbane, Australia. International Society for Horticultural Science; 2016. pp. 215–218.

14. Goudarzi A, Samavi S, Amiri Mazraie M, Majidi Z. Fungal pathogens associated with pre‐ and post-harvest fruit rots of mango in southern Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 2021; 169(9): 545–555. doi: 10.1111/jph.13027

15. Chukunda FA, Baraka RE, Azubuike P. Post-harvest diseases of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits in port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Mycology 2020; 12(2): 162–173.

16. Sharma B, Singh BN, Dwivedi P, Rajawat MV. Interference of climate change on plant-microbe interaction: Present and future prospects. Frontiers in Agronomy 2022; 3. doi: 10.3389/fagro.2021.725804

17. Chen J, Shen Y, Chen C, Wan C. Inhibition of key citrus postharvest fungal strains by plant extracts in vitro and in vivo: A review. Plants 2019; 8(2): 26. doi: 10.3390/plants8020026

18. Oyetayo VO, Ogundare AO. Antifungal property of selected Nigerian medicinal plants. In: Razzaghi-Abyaneh M, Rai M (editors). Antifungal Metabolites from Plants. Springer; 2013. pp. 59–77. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-38076-1_3

19. Kahramanoğlu İ, Nisar MF, Chen C, et al. Light: An alternative method for physical control of postharvest rotting caused by fungi of citrus fruit. Journal of Food Quality 2020; 2020: 8821346. doi: 10.1155/2020/8821346

20. Ugbogu OC, Emmanuel O, Agi GO, et al. A review on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.). Heliyon 2021; 7(11): e08404. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08404

21. Borisade OA, Awodele SO, Uwaidem YI. Insect pest profile of leaf amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus L) and prevention herbivory using oil-based extracts of Alium sativum L, Xylopia aethiopica Dunal and Eucalyptus globolus L. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 2019; 28(6): 1–9. doi: 10.9734/IJPSS/2019/v28i630130

22. Borisade OA, Uwaidem YI, Salami AE. Preliminary report on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sensu lato) from some tomato producing agroecological areas in Southwestern Nigeria and susceptibility of F1-resistant tomato hybrid (F1-Lindo) to infection. Annual Research & Review in Biology 2017; 18(2): 1–9. doi: 10.9734/arrb/2017/34626

23. Choi YW, Hyde KD, Ho WWH. Single spore isolation of fungi. Fungal Diversity 1999; 3: 29–38.

24. Zhang CQ, Liu YH, Wu HM, et al. Baseline sensitivity of Pestalotiopsis microspora, which causes black spot disease on Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis), to pyraclostrobin. Crop Protection 2012; 42: 256–259. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2012.07.018

25. Ezeonuegbu BA, Abdullahi MD, Whong CMZ, et al. Characterization and phylogeny of fungi isolated from industrial wastewater using multiple genes. Scientific Reports 2022; 12(1): 2094. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-05820-9

26. Chala A, Getahun M, Alemayehu S, Tadesse M. Survey of mango anthracnose in southern Ethiopia and in-vitro screening of some essential oils against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. International Journal of Fruit Science 2014; 14(2): 157–173.

27. Afsah‐Hejri L, Jinap S, Hajeb P, et al. A review on mycotoxins in food and feed: Malaysia case study. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2013; 12(6): 629–651. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12029

28. Borisade OA, Oso AA, Falade MJ. Interactions of some registered agrochemicals in Nigerian farming systems with entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinose. Ife Journal of Science 2016; 18(4): 949–961. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12029

29. Ladaniya MS. Commercial fresh citrus cultivars and producing countries. In: Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation. Academic Press; 2008. pp. 13–65.

30. Mnayer D, Fabiano-Tixier AS, Petitcolas E, et al. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of six essentials oils from the Alliaceae family. Molecules 2014; 19(12): 20034–20053. doi: 10.3390/molecules191220034

31. Satyal P, Craft JD, Dosoky NS, Setzer WN. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils of garlic (Allium sativum) and wild garlic (Allium vineale). Foods 2017; 6(8): 63. doi: 10.3390/foods6080063


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Okon Godwin Okon, Uwaidem Yakubu Ismaila, Ukponobong Efiong Antia, Muhammad Saqlain Zaheer, Hafiz Haider Ali, Abdelhak Rhouma

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).