Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2250
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by Pires Abdullah, Tibor Sipos
2023 , 4(1);    262 Views
Abstract This study employs a machine learning methodology, specifically the decision tree algorithm, in conjunction with the Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS), to conduct a rigorous analysis of traffic accident data. The research aims to investigate various factors associated with traffic accidents, with a particular emphasis on their spatial distribution and the socio-economic determinants contributing to recurring accidents caused by drivers. The study focuses on the city of Duhok, located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and utilizes a questionnaire to collect data from drivers regarding accident locations and the frequency of accidents within the past decade (from 2010 to 2020). The findings of the study reveal that the city center experiences the highest concentration of accidents, while severe collisions tend to occur in specific “black spots” scattered across the city’s road network. The decision tree model, employed to classify drivers with multiple accidents, identifies the primary causes of accidents as traffic conditions, traffic law violations, and overspeeding. Furthermore, the accident locations are found to be influenced by various factors, including different types of road hierarchy. The age and gender of drivers also contribute to accident patterns. These research findings have practical implications for enhancing road safety measures and reducing the frequency of traffic accidents. The utilization of machine learning techniques, combined with the analysis of spatial data through QGIS, provides a comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors contributing to accidents. Moreover, this research contributes novel insights to the field of road traffic accidents and safety, particularly in the context of the city of Duhok in Kurdistan Region, Iraq, and provides a valuable reference for future studies in the domain of road safety and urban planning.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2230
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by Eleonora Menéndez
2023 , 4(1);    153 Views
Abstract The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked a significant turning point in global politics and the recognition of pressing environmental issues. This period witnessed the emergence of conferences addressing climate change and the adoption of measures to promote sustainable development. Bruno Latour’s book “We have never been modern” (1991) reflects on this historical moment, questioning the prevailing capitalist system and emphasizing the urgent need for a paradigm shift towards ecological principles. In the present context, there is a growing consensus on the need for immediate action to protect the environment. Rising sea levels, soil degradation, melting ice caps, and the impending extinction of species highlight the gravity of the ecological crisis we face. Latour’s concept of “living in times of ecological crisis” underscores the role of culture and its pursuit of abundance and comfort in contributing to this crisis. This study focuses on the thermal baths of Rosario de la Frontera in Salta, Argentina, during two distinct periods, 1826 and 1888. By examining this specific geographical location, the research aims to explore the complex relationship between culture and nature and uncover the motivations that shaped the societal mindset of the time. The study seeks to gain insights into the perceptions of well-being that influenced the development of certain inventions and the transformation of collective lifestyles, with enduring implications for the present day.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2241
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by Yansha Xiao, Chun-Chen Chou, Kenji Doi, Kento Yoh
2023 , 4(1);    214 Views
Abstract In the context of the persistent food crisis and shifting societal dynamics, the concept of ‘edible landscaping’ has garnered increasing attention. Edible landscaping entails integrating food production into urban green spaces, offering a novel approach to address both food security and environmental sustainability. However, in China, conflicts regarding urban green spaces have arisen due to inadequate legal frameworks and management strategies. Gaining a better understanding of residents’ behavioral intentions and willingness to participate will provide support for future intervention measures by decision-makers. This study proposes an extended model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate the effects of individual attributes on behavioral intentions. An online questionnaire survey was conducted in Hefei, China, for hypothesis verification. The findings indicate that residents’ intention to participate in edible landscaping is influenced by perceived benefits and costs, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. Multi-group analyses reveal the moderating effects of past behavior, age, and gender on the proposed models. This study underscores the significance of promoting the benefits of edible landscaping while mitigating unfavorable factors. Additionally, it is important to consider the specific needs of different population groups. These findings have practical implications for future planning, implementation, and management of edible landscaping initiatives.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2283
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by Atilla Gencer Devecioğlu, Vedat Oruç, Tuba Taneli
2023 , 4(1);    234 Views
Abstract The utilizability of non-flammable refrigerant R471A with low-GWP is theoretically investigated in an air-conditioning system. In this context, R410A, R32, and R471A are compared for the evaporation temperatures of 4, 8, and 12 ℃ with the condenser temperatures of 40 and 50 ℃. The results indicate that both the mass flow rate and power consumption of R471A are higher compared to R410A and R32. Although COP of R471A is determined to be smaller than R410A and R32 by about 19% and 22%, R471A can satisfy the restrictions for air-conditioning systems due to its considerable low-GWP compared to R410A and R32 (GWP of R471A is lower by 78% and 93% in comparison with R32 and R410A, respectively). Hence, it should be possible to suppress global warming through the reduction of carbon emissions as a result of using R471A in these systems. Additionally, since R471A is non-flammable, it can be safely used for systems requiring a high amount of refrigerant charge without violating the restrictions.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2329
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by Danping Yang, Heinz Konietzky, Zhiwei Fan, Chuan Zhou, Manyi Li
2023 , 4(1);    104 Views
Abstract China’s efforts and decisions to phase out coal will shape global endeavors in addressing climate change in the upcoming decades. This study investigates the action logic and interactions among different stakeholders, including the central government, local government, coal enterprises, and mine workers, in the case of Chongqing to gain valuable insights into existing institutional and policy challenges. Our results demonstrate that: First, the provincial government is the key to managing and implementing the local coal transitions, its motivation for coal transition, however, may not always align with the nation’s overall priorities. This highlights the need for a top-down coal transition policy to address the mismatched incentives among various participants. Second, Chongqing’s successful experience in maintaining economic development and whole employment demonstrates the possibility of adopting a rapid coal closure in places with similar resource endowments and industrial structures. Chongqing’s collaborative approach to transferring social responsibilities to local governments also serves as a valuable model that may apply to others’ contexts. Lastly, it is crucial to make context-based policy adjustments and establish an integrated and independent governance system when pursuing a rapid, efficient, and safe coal phase-out.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2236
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by Ahmed Mohamed Rafat Omar, Uneb Gazder, Mohammed Raza Mehdi, Mudassar Arsalan
2023 , 4(1);    128 Views
Abstract In the realm of waste management, efficient route optimisation for municipal solid waste (MSW) collection is becoming increasingly crucial, particularly for developing nations with budgetary considerations. This study leverages the capabilities of the geographic information system (GIS) and integrates the Dijkstra algorithm to enhance route optimisation for MSW vehicles in Bahrain. Utilising comprehensive local vehicle routing data from Urbaser and applying GIS methodologies, three distinct areas in Bahrain were methodically analysed. The results revealed a notable 55% reduction in travel distance, a 17% decrease in time, and a yearly fuel cost saving of 6405 BHD (16,974 USD) in the optimal scenario. Given these findings, the potential applicability of this optimisation algorithm extends beyond Bahrain, suggesting significant benefits for regions with similar challenges. To further refine this approach, the integration of real-time traffic data into the routing algorithm is recommended. Other additions to the optimization process could include additional parameters such as safety.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2379
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by Shifeng Wang, Sicong Wang, Hui Wang
2023 , 4(1);    436 Views
Abstract Transportation and land use are interrelated and should be investigated simultaneously for sustainable urban. This paper investigates the interaction between transport and land-use systems using TRANUS model, to support the sustainable development of the London city, provide implicative information for London Mayor’s Transport Strategy (MTS), and reduce transport energy use and CO 2 emissions. Three infrastructure improvements scenarios for 2025 for MTS are examined. Results show that the trips will increase from 2012 to 2025 by over 1 million. High-occupancy car, bike, rail and tube are still the main transit, and CrossRail will be increasingly recognized. The transport energy use in 2025 high scenario is the smallest compared to 2025 baseline and low scenario. The transport CO 2 emissions show difference for these three 2025 scenarios, with low and high scenarios having smaller transport CO 2 emissions than baseline. These have informative implications for UK national infrastructure plans, and suggest that accounting environmental benefits of infrastructures will contribute to reduce the underinvestment in infrastructure.
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Open Access
Article
Article ID: 2267
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by Shayan Ali Khan, Zeerak Waryam Sajid, Arshad Hussain, Mansoor Ahmed Malik, Fazal Hussain, Muhammad Abubakar Khan
2023 , 4(1);    258 Views
Abstract In the wake of the emergence and widespread dissemination of the COVID-19 coronavirus, scientifically identified as SARSCoV-2, the utilization of medical equipment, specifically tri-layered polypropylene (PP)-based face masks, has experienced significant proliferation. The extensive adoption of single-use polymer-based face masks has raised notable environmental concerns, given their extended degradation period of up to 480 years and their substantial threat to ecosystems, particularly aquatic organisms, due to pervasive littering practices. Hence, this study is dedicated to assessing the influence of incorporating polypropylene (PP)-based face masks into asphalt formulations. The incorporation of PP-based face masks into asphalt was executed at three distinct weight percentages, employing both dry and wet mixing techniques. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out utilizing the Marshall test, indirect tensile fatigue test, and Hamburg wheel tracking rutting experiments and the best value for each. Remarkably, augmenting the PP content yielded improvements in both fatigue life and rutting resistance of the asphalt mixtures, and the maximum improvement was recorded at 0.3% replacement. Notably, asphalt specimens prepared using dry mixing techniques outperformed their wet mixing counterparts, demonstrating superior cohesion attributes.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 2346
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by Hadi Rezaeirad, Tarlan Sadeghipour
2023 , 4(1);    178 Views
Abstract The city as a living system and a dynamic structure throughout history, from birth to the present day, has shown a flexible attitude to the challenges ahead and has been constantly trying to overcome the challenges and reproduce its elements for the opportunity to become efficient and usable in the future. In the face of the corona pandemic challenge, the city has acted in the same way, shown reciprocal behavior, and tried to overcome this crisis effectively. Therefore, city planners and managers must approach the healthy city and its elements with a different approach and perspective. Apart from the destructive effects it has had on the human body and soul, the corona pandemic has also changed the quality of life in cities and their environments so much that new living patterns have been formed and some of the past structures have been discarded. For this purpose, after studying the literature review and the international experiences, the dimensions, factors, and effective indicators of the corona pandemic have been identified. The present study is a descriptive-analytical type, and the desired findings have been explained through a questionnaire using quantitative and qualitative methods and confirmatory factor analysis tools. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the concept of healthy cities has been compromised. It has unveiled the need to give more prominence to caring tasks while addressing intersectional social inequities and environmental injustices. The results of the analysis indicate that 14 indicators including lifestyle changes and health protocols, increase in virtual socialization, reduction of inequality among different groups of people in access to the internet, promotion, and expansion of digital tourism (virtual trips), starting development of apps and start-ups, increasing small-scale commercial markets, upgrading medical equipment, increasing countries interaction in the field of health, the importance of planting trees, using public transportation, increasing public transportation capacity, designing more open and green spaces in the city, more attention to deprived areas and slums and redesign of public spaces based on the prevailing conditions will provide positive effects during the pandemic of Tehran. Therefore, in order to improve and enhance the quality of life in healthy cities, especially during pandemics, suggestions have been made.
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Open Access
Review
Article ID: 2409
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by Simran Sehrawat, Sulochana Shekhar
2023 , 4(1);    185 Views
Abstract This study provides a global perspective on the status of Blue-Green Infrastructure (BGI) and investigates the challenges and opportunities associated with its implementation in the urban landscape of India. The research delves into the multifaceted realm of BGI by first elucidating its current status worldwide. It explores how cities globally, amidst expanding urbanization and escalating environmental challenges, have recognized the importance of BGI as a pivotal strategy. The paper then narrows its focus to the specific challenges and opportunities confronting Indian cities in the adoption and integration of BGI. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, global policy frameworks, and pertinent case studies, the study aims to unravel the complex interplay that governs BGI implementation in the Indian urban context. This dual approach ensures a nuanced understanding of both the global context and the specific challenges and opportunities faced by urban India in the realm of Blue-Green Infrastructure.
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