About This Journal

Eco Cities (EC) is an Open Access journal, which provides a forum for studies in the field of urban ecology and sustainability. The submitted manuscript will go through a rigorous double blind peer-reviewed process. Eco-city is a social, economic, cultural and natural composite ecosystem with high level of synergy and harmony, which has the function of material recycling, social harmony and synergy between human and nature.
Eco Cities aims to respond and adapt to the newest developments in scholarly publishing and at the same time, addresses highly relevant scientific and societal topics. This journal makes research outputs publicly available and allows for different types of articles including original research articles, review articles, book reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters, perspectives, case reports, etc.

 
 

Focus and Scope

     Eco Cities (EC) is an Open Access journal, which provides a forum for studies in the field of urban ecology and sustainability. The submitted manuscript will go through a rigorous double blind peer-reviewed process. Eco-city is a social, economic, cultural and natural composite ecosystem with high level of synergy and harmony, which has the function of material recycling, social harmony and synergy between human and nature.
     Eco Cities aims to respond and adapt to the newest developments in scholarly publishing and at the same time, addresses highly relevant scientific and societal topics. This journal makes research outputs publicly available and allows for different types of articles including original research articles, review articles, book reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters, perspectives, case reports, etc.

     The journal will specifically address the following topics but not limited to:

  •      Ecosystem services
  •      Sustainability ecology
  •      Urban ecology
  •      Urban development

For Authors

  • Asia Pacific Academy of Science Pte. Ltd. requests all members involved in the journal publishing process to adhere to the Core Practices on publication ethics as stipulated by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) 

    The publisher strictly adheres to the guidelines and best practices, which include Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in  Medical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE) and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing developed by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME).

    The publisher journal editors take all possible misconducts seriously. The Editors, authors or readers can forward their concerns to the journal if they find out that the description in a submitted article may constitute an academic fraud, research misconduct or publication malpractice. The concerns or complaints on the possible allegations submitted to the journal will be dealt with promptly and appropriately according to the procedure set out in the COPE flowchart on complaints. The complainant may direct all inquiries and correspondence to the publisher at editorial-ec@apacsci.com.

    The Eco Cities (EC) adopts a zero-tolerance policy concerning any academic misconducts and ethical violations in research and publication regardless of the severity of these issues. The violations include plagiarism, falsification of research, data fabrication, submitting manuscripts of others as one’s own, submission of same manuscript to different publication venues at the same time and breached intellectual property rights. In cases of suspected misconduct and ethical violation, a panel will be formed to investigate the allegation. If the allegation is supported by evidence, the submitted manuscript in question will be declined for consideration in the journal and all authors will be informed in this regard. A retraction initiated by authors or by the journal is required to take place if the paper has already been published, and the retraction will be made public. Authors of the work in question will receive the panel’s Decision via email and all appeals regarding the decision will have to be made to the publisher at editorial-ec@apacsci.com within 30 days of the decision date.
  • Authorship of a scholarly paper should be limited to individuals who have contributed substantially to its intellectual content. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or general supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. All authors should hold the responsibility of fairly evaluating their respective roles and their co-authors’ roles in the project. This is to ensure that authorship is attributed according to a fixed standard in all publications for which they will be listed as authors.

    In order to be listed as an author for a paper, one should have contributed sufficiently to the project. A co-author is expected to have contributed to some component of the work which led to the paper or be involved in the interpretation of its results. A maximum of two corresponding authors are allowed for the associated responsibilities. All authors should have a say in the final approval of the version to be published, in addition to reviewing the final manuscript prior to submission.

    Individuals who do not meet the above requirements, but have provided a valuable contribution to the work, may be acknowledged for their contribution as appropriate to the publication.

    Changes to Authorship

    Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript is accepted for publication. The corresponding author should provide the reasons for the change in authorship list and the proof of written confirmation from all authors (including the existing authors, author(s) to be added and/or removed) agreeing with such change, to the Editorial Office.

    The requests for authorship changes need to be approved by the Editorial Office before any changes can be made.

  • Conflicts of interest may exist when professional judgements concerning a primary interest have the possibility of being influenced by a secondary interest (e.g.: financial gains). It is to be noted that even perceptions of conflicts of interest are as important as the actual conflicts of interest.

    Any agreements with study sponsors (for profit or non-profit), which interfere with the authors’ access to the study data, ability to analyze or interpret the data and publish manuscripts independently according to their own decision, should be avoided by authors at all costs.

    A declaration of interests for all authors must be received before an article can be reviewed and accepted for publication.

  • Duplicate Submission

    Manuscripts submitted to EC’s journals should:

    1) not have been published before;

    2) not concurrently be submitted elsewhere.

    If part of a manuscript has been published or will be published elsewhere, the authors must let the editors know in a cover letter. If duplicate submission is detected during peer review, the manuscript may be rejected. If it is detected after publication, the manuscript may be retracted.

    Plagiarism

    Authors are advised to observe high standards in the aspect of publication ethics. Any plagiarism (fabrication or falsification of data) are strictly unacceptable practices in EC, including duplicate publication of the author’s work without proper citation.

    Every manuscript submitted for publication is checked for plagiarism via CrossCheck (powered by iThenticate) after submission and before being sent to the editor for editorial review. Any detection of overlapping and similar texts in the manuscripts submitted will be investigated promptly and may lead to the manuscript being rejected.

  • The language used in manuscripts submitted to Eco Cities is English. Authors whose first language is not English may want to have their manuscripts professionally edited before the final submission to ensure that the academic content of the paper is fully understood by its prospective readers.

  • Errata

    All publisher-introduced changes are highlighted to the author at the proof stage and any errors are ideally identified by the author and corrected by the publisher before final publication. Any errors in published articles discovered by readers, authors, editors, etc., please contact the journal edito. Whioce will only instigate a corrigendum to a published article after receiving approval and instructions from the editor.

    Withdrawal

    If the author decides to withdraw an article that has already been submitted to the journal, he/she would be required to pay a penalty fee (USD 200). Authors are advised to keep in mind that an article should only be withdrawn if the authors detect significant error or flaws, as it is not an acceptable practice to withdraw an article after it has been sent for peer review. The withdrawal process is considered to be complete once the author receives a confirmation of withdrawal from the Journal Editorial Office.

    • All the articles published online will be archived by Portico for long-term digital preservation.
    • Authors are encouraged to self-archive the final version of their published articles into institutional repositories (such as those listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories).
    • Authors are also encouraged to use the final PDF version published on the website of Wearable Technology.
  • Authors are permitted to post their non-peer-reviewed original research manuscripts to preprint servers before submitting to Eco Cities

    Authors are not allowed to post any versions of articles that have been revised as a result of peer review, accepted for publication or published in the journal on a preprint server. The manuscript whose corresponding preprint version has been indexed (e.g. in MEDLINE or PubMed) will not be considered.

    We encourage formal citation of preprints in the reference list if appropriate.
  • Authors should read the “Author Guidelines” before making a submission, and make sure that the manuscripts were written in accordance to the style and specifications of the journal’s policy.

    All manuscripts submitted to Eco Cities are subject to rigorous peer review. Prior to peer review process, the manuscripts will be screened for acceptable English language, novelty and relevance to the Focus and Scope of the journal.

    Any manuscripts submitted to Eco Cities will be treated as confidential materials. The manuscripts will not be disclosed to anyone except individuals such as editorial staff, reviewers and editors who participate in the initial screening, review, processing and preparation of the manuscript for publication (if accepted).

    A manuscript would not be accepted if it has been published or is currently under consideration for publication in any other journals. The authors are required to notify the editorial team if the findings and data in their submissions have been presented in conferences.

  • This journal  is not liable to the statements, perspectives, and opinions contained in the published articles. The appearance of advertisements in the journal shall not be construed as a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised and/or the safety thereof. This journal and the Publisher disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas or products referred to in the articles or advertisements.

    As an author, once submitting a manuscript, it means that you have be aware of all publishing policies & ethics,  and will strictly abide by them.

    As a reviewer, once reviewing a manuscript, it means that you must be aware of the peer review policies, and proactively disclose of all potential conflicts of interest, and guarantee that an article will be judged fairly and objectively. 

  • The authors shall retain the copyright of their work but allow the Publisher to publish, copy, distribute, and convey the work.

    All articles published by Eco Cities are licensed under the Creative Commons International Licenses. Without any explicit request from the corresponding author during submission stage, a paper will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) by default. The authors who would like to publish their work under a more accommodating license, i.e. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), they should express explicit request during submission stage. Please include statement below in the Comments for the Editor column on the submission page:

    The contributors or authors for this submission entitled “[MANUSCRIPT TITLE]”, i.e. [NAMES of ALL AUTHORS], have given their consents to alter the Creative Commons license to *CC BY-NC 4.0* under which this submission will be published in Eco Cities.

  • All advertisements are subject to approval to the Publisher. Advertisements must comply with the relevant regulations in the country where the advertisements appear. For more inquiries, please send email to editorial-ec@apacsci.com.

  • All papers submitted to our Journal should declare agreement with the following "statement of informed consent". Any paper lacking it will not be considered for publication. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the published article.

    Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. All information which could contribute to identify patients, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, etc., unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives explicit written informed consent for publication. For this purpose the manuscript should be shown to the patient before publication and specific and explicit informed consent should be obtained. Furthermore, individuals who provide writing assistance should be identified by the authors, and they must disclose the funding source for this assistance.

    Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. However, since complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, informed consent should be obtained from each patient involved, if there is any doubt. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning, and editors will note that.

    Nonessential identifying details should be omitted. Informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are de-identified, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning, and editors will note that.

  • All papers submitted to this journal should declare agreement with the following "statement of human and animal rights". Any paper lacking it will not be considered for publication. Papers describing procedures involving humans or animals must include an explicit and easily identifiable statement pointing out that the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008. If any doubt exists as to whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and then demonstrate that the institutional ethical committee explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study.

    When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

  • Author Guidelines

    Please carefully check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions provided before submitted to our online submission system. This following guide and new manuscript template is updated and prepared specifically for people who is going to contribute or edit the manuscripts that will be published in Eco Cities (EC) since 2023 Volume 4 Issue 1. Those who have submitted a manuscript or articled being processed before 2022 Volume 3 Issue 2 (including 2022 Vol.3 No.2), should still refer to the previous author guidelines for further processing.

    Manuscript Format

    Your manuscript should be in MS Word format. All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both British and American English are accepted. Usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum and all must be italicized with the exception of "e.g.", "i.e." and "etc." If you have concerns about the level of English in your submission, please ensure that it is proofread before submission by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service. Please chose suitable article type according to Section Policy.

    Cover Letter

    All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. A cover letter should contain a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to a broad readership. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by reviewers.

    Title

    The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper's significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.

    List of Authors

    The names of authors must be spelled out rather than set in initials along with their affiliations. Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. All corresponding authors should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, country. For contact purposes, email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. Please note that all authors must see and approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting. Please confirm the authorship according to Authorship Policy.

    Abstract

    Articles must include an abstract containing a maximum of 300 words. The purpose of the abstract is to provide sufficient information for a reader to determine whether to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please provide 3-8 key words, avoiding the same words already used in the title.

    Text

    The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word. Research article should include the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion (optional). The length of the manuscript should be a minimum word count of 4,000 words.

    Section Headings

    Headings are used to indicate the hierarchy of sections of text. No more than four levels of displayed headings are employed. Please number the section headings (e.g. 1., 2., 3., 4.) in boldface. Likewise, use boldface to identify subheadings too, but please distinguish it from major headings using numbers (e.g. 1.1., 1.2., 2.1., 2.2.) Further subsections of subheadings should be differentiated with the numbers 1.1.1., 1.1.2., 2.1.1., 2.1.2., etc.

    Introduction

    The introduction should provide a background that gives the broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It pinpoints a problem and states its importance regarding the significance of the study. The introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

    Materials and Methods

    This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough details for other investigators to fully replicate your results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail to reproduce the experiments.

    Results

    This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed.

    Discussion

    This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.

    Conclusion (Optional)

    Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

    The sequence of back matter elements in an article is listed below. There is no numeral label for back matter headings. Some is optional.

    Supplementary materials (Optional)

    The “Supplementary materials” section should be a short description of the supplementary materials. The detailed information can be formatted in one or more individual supplementary files. These materials are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers' understanding of the manuscript's main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain 'suppl. info'. Videos may be included in this section.

    Author contributions

    For research articles, if there is only one author for a paper, you do not need to add author contributions. If there is more than one author, authors are asked to prepare a short, one paragraph statement giving the individual contribution of each co‐author to the reported research and the writing of the paper. For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided.

    The following statements should be used “Conceptualization, XX and YY; methodology, XX; software, XX; validation, XX, YY and ZZ; formal analysis, XX; investigation, XX; resources, XX; data curation, XX; writing—original draft preparation, XX; writing—review and editing, XX; visualization, XX; supervision, XX; project administration, XX; funding acquisition, YY. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.”

    Funding

    Financial support in preparation of the publication is included at the end of the article, which is NOT mandatory. If authors provided, they should be in the same style as the template,

    e.g.,

    Please add: “This research received no external funding” or “This research was funded by [name of funder] grant number [xxx]” and “The APC was funded by [XXX]”. Check carefully that the details given are accurate and use the standard spelling of funding agency names at https://search.crossref.org/funding, any errors may affect your future funding.

    Acknowledgments (Optional)

    Acknowledgments of the publication are included at the end of the article, and are NOT mandatory. Keep them as the authors have provided.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are required to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript. Examples of such activities could include personal or work-related relationships, events, etc. Authors who have nothing to declare are encouraged to add "No conflict of interest was reported by all authors" in this section. Please comply with the Conflict of Interest policy.

    Figures

    Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as one file in the OJS system. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs) as well as be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis.) and number them (e.g. Figure 1Figure 2.) in boldface. The caption should describe the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend defined as description of each panel.

    The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are PNG or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Although there are no file size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system if necessary.

    In the main text, all figures should be cited in the following formats:

    Figure 1

    Figures 3 and 4

    Figures 13 and 4

    Figures 1–3

    Figure 1a,b

    Figure 1a–c

    Figure 9a or Figure 9c

    Figure 9a or Figure 10c

    Figure 2(a1)

    Figure 2(a1,b2)

    Figure 1 Left or Figure 1 Right (not recommended)

    If “respectively” is after the citations of figures or tables, like “Figures 2a, 3a, 4a and 2b, 3b, 4b, respectively”, just keep them as in their provided form.

    The figure or table is usually put after its first appearance, but it can be adjusted depending on the blank space.

    The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

    Tables, Lists and Equations

    Tables should be prepared in MS Word/Excel table format, not inserted as images. Very large tables can be placed in the Supplementary Material. The tables should include a title at the top. Titles and footnotes/legends should be concise. These must be submitted together with the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers.

    In the main text, tables should be cited in the following formats:

    Table 1

    Tables 3 and 4

    Tables 13, and 4

    Tables 1–3

    If there are subtables (a) or (b), please combine them into one table, and use the format of Table 1a,b in the main text.

     

    In-text Citations

    List and number all bibliographical references that make an important contribution to the paper. When referenced in the text, enclose the citation number in square brackets, for example: 

    • Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
    • This effect has been widely studied[1-5,7].

    References

    This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section.

    Journal

    Journal article in English

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Title of the article. Journal Name Year; Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

    • e.g., Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, et al. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Archives of Neurology 2005; 62(1): 112–116. doi: 10.1001/archneur.62.1.112

    Journal article in a language other than English

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. English title of the article (language). Journal Name Year; Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

    • e.g., Massone L, Borghi S, Pestarino A. Purpuric palmarsites of dermatitis herpetiformis (French). Annual Dermatol Venerol 1987; 114(12): 1545–1547.

     

    Book

    Book without editors

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Chapter (optional). In: Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. pp. Page range (optional).

    • e.g., Cerdá C. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Non‐communicable Diseases—Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives in Therapeutics. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
    • e.g., Desiraju GR, Steiner T. The Weak Hydrogen Bond in Structural Chemistry and Biology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; 1999. pp. 10–25.

    Book with editors

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Title of the contribution. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. Volume (optional), pp. Page range (optional).

    • e.g., Almlof J, Gropen O. Relativistic effects in chemistry. In: Lipkowitz KB, Boyd DB (editors). Reviews in Computational Chemistry. VCH; 1996. Volume 8. pp. 206–210.

    In a translated book, put the translators’ names after the editors’ names: “Translator 1 FM (translator)” or “Translator 1 FM, Translator 2 FM (translators)”. For example:

    • e.g., Tessier J. Structure, synthesis and physical—Chemical properties of deltamethrin. In: Tessier J (editor). Walden BVdG (translator). Deltamethrin Monograph. Roussel‐Uclaf; 1982.

    If the editors and translators are the same, the format should be as in the following example:

    • e.g., Gadamer HG. Hermeneutics and logocentrism. In: Michelfelder DP, Palmer RE (editors and translators). Dialogue and Deconstruction: The Gadamer‐Derrida Debate. State University of New York Press; 1989. pp. 114–125.

     

    Conference

    Full citations of published abstracts (proceedings)

    In most cases, the proceedings will be simply called “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” without a book title. In this case, please only add the conference name in the proceedings’ title and keep that in regular face (i.e., do no italicize):

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Title of presentation. In: Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

    • e.g., Chum O, Philbin J, Zisserman A. Near duplicate image detection: Min‐Hash and tf‐idf weighting. In: Proceedings of the 19th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC 2008); 1–4 September 2008; Leeds, UK. pp. 812–815.

    If the proceedings are published as a book with a separate title (i.e., not “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” as the title), the Book Titles is in italic:

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors) (if available). Title of Collected Work, Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Publisher; Year. Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

    • e.g., Beebe N. Digital forensic research: The good, the bad and the unaddressed. In: Advances in Digital Forensics V, Proceedings of the Fifth IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics; 26–28 January 2009; Orlando, FL, USA. Springer; 2009. Volume V, pp. 17–36.

    Oral presentations without published material

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation (if any). Presented at the Name of Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available); Paper number (if available).

    • e.g., Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhong J, et al. ZnO nanotip‐based QCM biosensors. Presented at the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition; 4–7 June 2006; Miami, FL, USA.

     

    Thesis/Dissertation

    Author FM. Title of Thesis [Level of thesis]. Degree‐Granting University; Year.

    • e.g., Mäckel H. Capturing the Spectra of Silicon Solar Cells [PhD thesis]. The Australian National University; 2004.

    The level of thesis can be called “XX thesis” or “XX dissertation”. Thesis types include but are not limited to the following:

        PhD thesis

        Master’s thesis

        Bachelor’s thesis

        Licentiate thesis

        Diploma thesis

     

    Newspapers

    Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, et al. Title of article. Title of Periodical, Complete Date, Pagination (if available).

    • e.g.: Squires S. Falling short on nutrients. The Washington Post, 4 October 2005, p. H1.

     

    Patent

    Patent Owner 1, Patent Owner 2, Patent Owner 3. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date (Day Month Year, the Application granted date).

    • e.g., Sheem SK. Low‐Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor. U.S. Patent 6,738,537, 18 May 2004.
    • e.g., Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, et al. Friction Stir Butt Welding. International Patent Application No. PCT/GB92/02203; GB Patent Application No. 9125978.8; U.S. Patent Application No. 5,460,317, 6 December 1991.

     

    Unpublished work

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Title of unpublished work. Journal Title Year (if available); Phrase Indicating Stage of Publication (submitted, in press, etc.).

    • e.g., Guo L, Zhu Y, Gunawan O, et al. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cell with 7% power conversion efficiency. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 2014; in press.
    • e.g., Nokinara K. Title of unpublished work. Duke University, Durham, UK; 2003; Unpublished work.

     

    Online resources

    Author (if available). Title of content (if available). Available online: http://URL (accessed on Day Month Year). In case of a homepage, the access date is not required.

    • e.g., Weier MH. In a big win for HP, Wal‐Mart chooses Neoview Data Warehouse. Available online: http://www.informationweek.com/news/201202317 (accessed on 2 June 2012).

     

    References tips:

    1. References are limited to first three authors.

    2. References with more than three authors: the first three authors should be listed; all the subsequent authors should be replaced by single “et al.” As et al. means “and others”, list all names if there are only 4 authors.

    3. Journal name in each reference should not be abbreviated.

    4. “(a) ref. 1; (b) ref. 2” in one reference is not allowed, and it should be divided into two references.

    5. Pagination: use the abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” to indicate single and multiple pages, respectively, e.g.,

        p. 1

        pp. 1–20

        pp. 1, 15, 20

        240p (to cite the whole book)

    6. The article number can replace the page number.

    7. If the author names appear in non-roman alphabets, Do Retain it as in original form.

    e.g. Å not as A

    ĝ not as g

    Ø not as O

    ñ not as n

    Ç not as C

    ü not as u

    Ł not as L

    æ not as ae

    à not as a

    oe not as oe

    8. Capitalize first letter after colon/em dash.

    9. If you are not sure what type it is, just try to put it as an online resource—find the document or website’s title, and its URL address. The accessed date should be provided later by the authors (ask the authors to provide this).

     

    Appendix Optional

    Appendixes provide information supplementary to an article and are included at the end of the main document. If there is only one, it is designated “Appendix A”; if there is more than one, they are designated “Appendix A”, “Appendix B”, etc.

    Appendixes should be cited in the main text. An appendix’s Figures/Tables/Equations can be cited in the main text, but are not mandatory. The content of an appendix is contained within the sections subordinate to the major heading, “Appendix.” The language and styling rules for the text also apply to appendixes. The form of numbering of tables, figures, and equations in an appendix should be started with prefix A, (i.e., Figure A1, Figure A2, Table A1, etc.).

     

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Latest Articles
Open Access
Articles
Emmanuel Kazuva
2024 , 5(1), 2474; doi: 10.54517/ec.v5i1.2474
Article lD: 2474
Abstract

This paper presents a report as part of a comprehensive study on the utilization of some forms of solid waste (SW) to make charcoal briquettes (CB) as an alternative fuel source in communities that are reliant upon traditional charcoal (TC) and wood as the primary cooking fuels. The study coincides with the Tanzanian government’s efforts to diminish reliance on wood and charcoal as a primary fuel source, particularly for large-scale consumers. Nevertheless, the government restriction on TC usage comes with little or no presentation of alternative sources that are both eco-friendly and economically sustainable. Introducing the mechanism that meets both environmental and economic criteria, the study employs a cross-sectional approach to collect the required data and uses experimental methods to evaluate the performance of the produced CB. Such tests focused on cooking duration, burning rate (BR), specific fuel consumption (SFC), and the general efficiency expressed by the percentage of heat utilized (PHU). In most cases, CB performs by far or less well than TC. Such results make the study important as it develops clean cooking technologies to solve the existing fuel crisis and improve health and environmental conditions from SW pollution while reducing deforestation, subsequent desertification, and climate change for sustainable environmental conservation.

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