About This Journal

City Diversity (CD) is an open access journal which boasts international reputation. It adopts a multitude of academic articles in this field. All the articles submitted will undergo a rigorous double blind peer-reviewed process.
City Diversity (CD) is an important indicator to evaluate the service function of urban ecosystem, which is important to maintain the ecological security and ecological balance of cities and improve the urban habitat. This journal will help to construct a better city by providing in-depth researches in this field. This journal welcomes different types of articles including original research articles, review articles, book reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters, perspectives, case reports, etc.

 

Focus and Scope

City diversity (CD) is an open access journal which boasts international reputation. It adopts a multitude of academic articles in this field. All the articles submitted will undergo a rigorous double blind peer-reviewed process. City diversity (CD) is an important indicator to evaluate the service function of urban ecosystem, which is important to maintain the ecological security and ecological balance of cities and improve the urban habitat. This journal will help to construct a better city by providing in-depth researches in this field. This journal welcomes different types of articles including original research articles, review articles, book reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters, perspectives, case reports, etc.

The journal will specifically address the following topics but not limited to: Urban habitat, city biodiversity, ecological diversity, ecological balance.

For Authors

  • APASCI upholds the spirit of strict adherence to high ethical standards. This is consistent with APASCI’s mission of publishing high-quality articles and promoting open scientific exchanges globally. APASCI follows the Ethical Oversight Guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) in overseeing the publication process, as well as the activities of APASCI journals, editors, and reviewers.

    APASCI and all the editors adhere to the following guidelines:

    1. Core Practices and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE);

    2. Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME).

    3. Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals from the International Committee of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE).

    APASCI is committed to protecting the privacy of its contributors and promises not to disclose personal information to third parties without permission, unless for necessary purposes of the publishing process or required by law.

    APASCI takes allegations of misconduct (refer to the Misconduct Policy for more details) seriously and will launch an immediate investigation by a group of investigation members. Decisions will be made by the investigation group based on clear evidence, and the authors will be informed. If there is any appeal against the decision, it must be made to the publisher within 14 days of the decision date, or else actions will be taken after 14 days. The decision on the appeal is final.

    Any complaints and appeals against APASCI journals and editors can be directed to the publisher at editorial_office@apacsci.com, and APASCI follows COPE guidelines in handling all complaints and appeals.

    Research Involving Human Subjects

    Authors who carry out research involving humans must declare that their studies followed the WMA Declaration of Helsinki. They must obtain approval from the concerned research ethics committee before carrying out the research and accept the monitoring by the committee. During the submission stage, authors are required to attach a statement containing the name of the ethics committee, the approval code, etc.

    Informed consent to participate in the research must be obtained from all human subjects or their guardians. A statement on the consent to participate should also be included during submission. If there is no need for informed consent, authors must provide the name of the ethics committee and the reason for the absence of the need for informed consent.

    Human subjects’ right to privacy right is inviolable. Authors should not disclose any identifying information, including but not limited to names, initials, contacts, and medical record numbers, unless the absence of such information may influence the interpretation of the research. In addition, written informed consent for publication from the participants should be obtained. If participants are vulnerable, informed consent should be given by their guardians. Authors must inform the participants if pictures of their bodies (e.g., faces) have to be included in the manuscript and receive consent for publication. In the case of deceased human subjects, their next of kin or legal representative should be asked for consent.

    Research Involving Animal Subjects

    All studies involving animals should be approved by an ethics committee before the research is conducted. If ethical approval is not required by national laws, exemption from the ethics committee, the name of the ethics committee, and the reason should be provided by the authors during submission.

    The following guidelines can be helpful for authors in upholding high ethical standards and avoiding submission rejection

    APASCI applies The ARRIVE Essential 10: Compliance Questionnaire for evaluating comparative experiments in living animals. Authors can also use it as a checklist.

  • Based on the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), authorship should be limited to those who meet the following four criteria:

    1. Contributed substantially to the conception or design of the manuscript or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the manuscript; AND
    2. Drafted the manuscript or reviewed it critically for significant intellectual content; AND
    3. Have final approval of the version to be published; AND
    4. Agreed to be responsible for the manuscript in ensuring that problems relating to the accuracy or completeness of any part of the manuscript are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    Individuals who do not meet the above four criteria should not be listed as authors but should be acknowledged. Authors should disclose whether artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted technologies were used in the preparation of their manuscripts and how they used them. Authors should also report the use of AI for writing assistance in the Acknowledgment section. AI tools should not be used in sections that rely on human intellectual analysis, such as data interpretation and conclusion summarization.

    Changes to Authorship

    Authorship changes (addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names) should be made before the acceptance of the manuscript. Confirmation from all authors (including existing authors and author(s) to be added and/or removed) should be provided to the editorial office of the journal, together with the reason for such changes. Changes can be made after the approval of the journal.

  • Authors are required to declare any potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial). Any agreements with study sponsors (for-profit or non-profit), such as those that interfere with the authors’ access to the study’s data or with the authors’ ability to analyze or interpret the data and to publish manuscripts independently according to their own decision, should be avoided by authors at all costs.

    APASCI also requires reviewers and editors to declare any (potential) non-financial conflicts of interest and declare any unpaid roles or relations that may influence the decision on the manuscript’s publication. These include, but are not limited to, unpaid roles in a governmental or non-governmental organization, unpaid roles in an advocacy or lobbying organization, and unpaid advisory positions in a commercial organization.

    In addition, reviewers and editors must disclose any association that poses a conflict of interest in connection with the manuscript. Examples are personal or work-related relationships with one of the authors or the reviewer is on the authors’ avoidance list.

  • Following COPE guidelines, APASCI will not accept any misconduct behaviors that may mislead researchers.

    Plagiarism

    Plagiarism is not acceptable. Using the content from one’s own previously published articles without proper citation is also considered plagiarism. APASCI adopts Crossref Similarity Check (powered by iThenticate) for checking the originality of submissions. Manuscripts with a high similarity index may be rejected.

    Fabrication and falsification

    Fabrication and falsification of data or images will mislead researchers. APASCI strongly opposes such practices and will reject suspicious submissions.

    Duplicate submission

    Duplicate submission of a manuscript that has been published or submitted to other journals at the same time will not be considered.
  • The language of all manuscripts must be English (either British or American) and non-English words should be used sparingly. Poor English may lead to article rejection. Authors are encouraged to seek language polishing by a native English speaker or a professional editing service.
  • Correction

    Authors are responsible for approving the final version of their manuscript and they should avoid any errors prior to publishing. In the case of errors that occur in a published article and have no influence on research results, APASCI will issue a correction/erratum.

    Authors, readers, and editors are encouraged to report any errors found in published papers. Please contact the editorial office of the particular journal.

    Retraction

    Based on COPE guidelines, the following conditions can lead to the retraction of a published article:

    • Unreliable findings
    • Plagiarism
    • Published elsewhere without proper attribution to previous sources, disclosure to the editor, permission to republish, or justification
    • Containing material or data without the authorization for use
    • Infringement of copyright, violation of privacy, or other legal issues
    • Unethical research
    • Dubious peer review processes
    • Failing to disclose a major competing interest

    If any of the above misconduct proved to be true, a retraction notice will be issued with the reason, while the PDF of the retracted article will be watermarked with “Retracted”. The journal editors will inform the authors of the retraction.

    Paid Article Processing Charges will not be refunded to the authors if retraction occurs.

    Withdrawal

    Although not encouraged, authors can initiate the withdrawal of their submission before and during the peer review process by providing the reason. However, authors should note that a penalty fee of US$200 will be imposed for the withdrawal of a submission undergoing the peer review process due to the spent efforts on the evaluation of the manuscript by the editors and reviewers. Upon the approval of submission withdrawal, the submission will be removed from the journal’s operation system, and the authors be informed.

    Accepted articles and articles in press may also be withdrawn due to infringements of professional ethical codes (similar reasons to those for retraction).

    • All the articles published online will be archived by Portico for long-term digital preservation.
    • Authors are encouraged to self-archive the final version of their published articles into institutional repositories (such as those listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories).
    • Authors are also encouraged to use the final PDF version published on the website of City Diversity.
  • APASCI allows authors to post preprints of the manuscript of their original research articles (limited to only this type of article) on community preprint servers, such as arXiv, bioRxiv, and PeerJ Preprint, prior to or simultaneous with their manuscript submission to APASCI journals. Authors retain the copyright of the manuscript posted on a preprint server.

    Authors should inform the editors of the preprint version of their submitted manuscript in a cover letter, as well as provide any associated accession numbers or DOIs. Revised versions per the result of the peer review process and accepted versions for publication should not be posted on a preprint server.

    Upon publication of the article, APASCI encourages authors to link the article in the preprint server to the journal site, so as to guide readers to access and refer to the final version of the article.

  • Authors should read the “Author Guidelines” before making a submission, and make sure that the manuscripts were written in accordance to the style and specifications of the journal’s policy.

    All manuscripts submitted to City Diversity are subject to rigorous peer review. Prior to the peer review process, the manuscripts will be screened for acceptable English language, novelty and relevance to the Focus and Scope of the journal.

    Any manuscripts submitted to City Diversity will be treated as confidential materials. The manuscripts will not be disclosed to anyone except individuals such as editorial staff, reviewers and editors who participate in the initial screening, review, processing and preparation of the manuscript for publication (if accepted).

    A manuscript would not be accepted if it has been published or is currently under consideration for publication in any other journals. The authors are required to notify the editorial team if the findings and data in their submissions have been presented in conferences.

  • The opinions, statements, methods, results, and data in APASCI’s published articles are those of the authors and do not reflect the opinions of APASCI and its editors. APASCI disclaims responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, or products referred to in the articles or advertisements.
  • Authors contributing to APASCI journals retain the copyright.

    All articles published by City Diversity are licensed under the Creative Commons International Licenses. Without any explicit request from the corresponding author during the submission stage, a paper will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0) by default. Authors who would like to publish their work under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0), should express their request during the submission stage. Please include the statement below in the "Comments for the Editor column" on the submission page:

    The contributors or authors for this submission entitled “[MANUSCRIPT TITLE]”, i.e. [NAMES of ALL AUTHORS], have given their consents to alter the Creative Commons License to *CC BY-NC 4.0* under which this submission will be published in City Diversity.

    1. APASCI reserves the right to accept or refuse advertising.
    2. Advertisements must comply with relevant rules and laws in the country where they will appear.
    3. Advertisements should be clearly legible and advertisers identifiable.
    4. Advertisements should never influence the content of each journal and editorial decisions.
    5. APASCI disclaims responsibility for any damages resulting from advertisements in its journals.

    For any advertisement queries, please contact APASCI at editorial_office@apacsci.com.

  • Author Guidelines

    Before submitting to the journal, authors should read through the author guidelines for preparing their manuscript. Starting in 2024, a new layout style will be applied, so please download the new manuscript template. Those who have submitted manuscripts or processed articles to be published in Volume 4 Issue 2 of 2023 (including Vol. 4 No. 2) should still refer to the previous author guidelines.

    Manuscript Format

    The manuscript should be in MS Word or LaTeX format. The language of all manuscripts must be English (either British or American) and non-English words should be used sparingly. Poor English may lead to article rejection. Authors are encouraged to seek language polishing by a native English speaker or a professional editing service.

    Article Types

    Please refer to the Section Policy for choosing an appropriate type.

    Cover Letter

    Authors should attach a cover letter together with the article text. A cover letter should contain a brief explanation of the significance of their work and the intention of doing the work. If the work involves the human and animal research, authors should provide the Informed Consent Statement or Ethical Approval ID attached with cover letter. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by the reviewers.

    Article Title

    Titles should be no more than 50 words, with significant and attractive information for readers. Titles should not include uncommon jargons, abbreviations, and punctuation.

    List of Authors

    The list of authors should be arranged based on the level of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. Corresponding authors should be marked with an asterisk (*). Affiliation information should be provided with the following elements: department, institution, city, postal code (if available), and country. The email address of at least one corresponding author must be provided. All authors must approve the final version of the manuscript and agree with the submission. For more information about authorship, please refer to our Authorship Policy.

    Abstract and Keywords

    Depending on the article type, an abstract should be provided, which gives a concise summary of the article. It is usually a single paragraph of about 200–250 words maximum. Between 5–8 keywords should be included. Words and phrases in article titles should be avoided as keywords.

    Text

    The text of manuscripts should be in MS Word or LaTeX format. Original research articles should include the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion (optional) sections.

    Section Headings

    Headings are used to indicate the hierarchy of the sections of the text. No more than three levels of headings should be employed. The first level of heading should be numbered as 1., 2., 3., 4. in boldface. Likewise, the second and third levels of headings should also be in boldface, for example, 1.1., 1.2., 1.1.1., 1.1.2.

    Introduction

    The introduction should provide a background that gives the broad readership an overall outlook on the field and the research performed. It pinpoints a problem and states the significance of the study. The introduction can conclude with a brief statement on the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

    Materials and Methods

    This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough details for other investigators to fully replicate the experiments. It is also to facilitate a better understanding of the results obtained.

    Results

    This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed.

    Discussion

    This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the Results section.

    Conclusion (Optional)

    The conclusion section can only be used for interpretation, and not be used to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

    Figures and Tables

    Figures (photographs, images, graphs, charts, and schematic diagrams) and tables should be referred to within the main text and numbered consecutively as Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Table 2, etc. They should be placed as close as possible to where they are first cited and center-aligned. Both figure captions and table captions should be center-aligned, with figure captions set underneath the figures and table captions above the tables. When captions are longer than one line, they should be left-aligned.

    Figures can contain multiple panels. They should be numbered by Latin letters with parentheses, e.g., (a), (b), (c), or (A), (B), (C), placed below the image or within the image.

    Tables should be in MS Word/Excel table format. Tables containing too much information can be provided as supplementary material.

    In the main text, all figures and tables should be cited, e.g., “Table 1 indicates…”, “Figures 1 and 2 shows…”, and “Figure 1a,b shows…”.

    Lists and Equations

    Both bulleted lists and numbered lists are acceptable (refer to the template). Equations should be center-aligned and equation numbers should be right-aligned. If cited in the text, equations should be labeled with numbers in parentheses, e.g., Equation (1).

    In-Text Citations

    All bibliographical references that make an important contribution to the article should be numbered according to the appearance order. When cited in the text, the number should be placed in square brackets, for example:

    • Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3,4].
    • This effect has been widely studied [1–5,7].

    Appendix (Optional)

    An appendix provides information supplementary to an article and is included at the end of the article after the References section and it should start on a new page. For one appendix, it is designated as “Appendix”; for more than one appendix, they are designated “Appendix A”, “Appendix B”, etc.

    An appendix should be cited in the main text. Tables, figures, and equations should be started with the prefix A (i.e., Figure A1, Figure A2, Table A1, etc.).

    Back Matter

    The sequence of back matter elements in an article is listed below. There is no numeral label for back matter headings. Some of these elements are optional.

    Supplementary materials (Optional)

    The Supplementary Materials section provides a short description of the supplementary materials. One or more individual supplementary files are allowed and should be submitted in Step 4 during submission. These materials are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers’ understanding of the article’s main content. Please ensure the names of such files contain “suppl. info”. Videos may be included in this section.

    Author contributions

    For original research articles, this section is required, except when there is only one author for the article. The contribution of each co‐author should be reported in this section.

    The following statements should be used “Conceptualization, XX and YY; methodology, XX; software, XX; validation, XX, YY and ZZ; formal analysis, XX; investigation, XX; resources, XX; data curation, XX; writing—original draft preparation, XX; writing—review and editing, XX; visualization, XX; supervision, XX; project administration, XX; funding acquisition, YY. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.”

    Funding (Optional)

    Authors can acknowledge financial support in this section, which is NOT mandatory. If authors provide a funding statement, it should be in the same style as the template.

    For example:

    “This research was funded by [name of funder] grant number [xxx]” and “The APC was funded by [XXX]”. Please check carefully that the details given are accurate and that the standard spelling of the funding agency’s name in https://search.crossref.org/funding is used, as any errors may affect the authors’ future funding.

    Acknowledgments (Optional)

    Authors can acknowledge any support and contribution that cannot be included in the Author Contributions and Funding sections. This section is NOT mandatory.

    Conflict of interest

    According to our Conflict of Interest Policy, all authors are required to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relation to their submitted manuscript. Examples of such activities include personal or work-related relationships and events. Authors who have nothing to declare should add “No conflict of interest was reported by all authors” or “The authors declare no conflict of interest” in this section.

    References

    This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of the manuscript. Footnotes or endnotes should not replace a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications should be excluded from this section.

    The format of author names should be “Last-Name Initial”, e.g., David Smith should be written as Smith D.

    Journal

    Journals in English:

    • Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of the article. Journal Name. Year, Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

    Journals in languages other than English:

    • Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. English title of the article (original language). Journal Name. Year, Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

    Book

    A book without editors:

    • Author AA, Author BB. Chapter (optional). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. pp. Page range (optional).

    A book with editors:

    • Author AA, Author BB. Title of the contribution. In: Editor CC, Editor DD (editors). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. Volume (optional), pp. Page range (optional).

    For a translated book, the translators’ names should be placed after the editors’ names: “Translator AA (translator)” or “Translator AA, Translator BB (translators)”.

    If the editors and translators are the same, the format should be as follows:

    • Author AA, Author BB. Title of the contribution. In: Editor CC, Editor DD (editors and translators). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. Volume (optional), pp. Page range (optional).

    Conference

    Full citations of published abstracts (proceedings):

    In most cases, proceedings will be simply called “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” without a book title. In this case, please only add the conference name in the proceedings’ title and keep that in regular font (i.e., do not italicize):

    • Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of presentation. In: Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

    If the proceedings are published as a book with a separate title (i.e., not “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” as the title), the book title should be included:

    • Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of presentation. In: Editor DD, Editor EE (editors) (if available). Title of Collected Work, Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Publisher; Year. Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

    Oral presentations without published material:

    • Author AA, Author BB, Author CC. Title of presentation (if any). Presented at the Name of Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available); Paper number (if available).

    Thesis/Dissertation

    • Author AA. Title of Thesis [Level of thesis]. Degree‐Granting University; Year.

    The level of thesis can be called “XX thesis” or “XX dissertation”. Thesis types include but are not limited to the following:

    • PhD thesis
    • Master’s thesis
    • Bachelor’s thesis
    • Licentiate thesis
    • Diploma thesis

    Newspaper

    • Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, et al. Title of article. Title of Periodical, Complete Date, Pagination (if available).

    Patent

    • Patent Owner AA, Patent Owner BB, Patent Owner CC. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date (Day Month Year, the Application granted date).

    Unpublished work

    • Author AA, Author BB. Title of unpublished work. Journal Title. Year (if available); Phrase Indicating Stage of Publication (submitted, in press, etc.).

    Online resources

    • Author (if available). Title of content (if available). Available online: http://URL (accessed on Day Month Year).

    For a homepage, the access date is not required.

  • Authors contributing to this journal agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. With this license, the authors hold the copyright without restrictions and are allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions as long as this journal is the original publisher of the articles.

  • The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

APC Payment

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*Article No.

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Latest Articles
Open Access
Original Research Articles
Congming Ding, Xueyang Huang, Min Zhou
City. Divers. 2023 , 4(2); doi:
Article lD: 1949
Abstract

Since the reform and opening up, China's urbanization has developed rapidly Behind the rapid urbanization is the imbalance and insufficiency of urban development From the perspective of social and cultural diversity, this paper explores the impact of the diversity of dialect types on urban scale The diversity of dialects leads to the division of trust, hinders the cross regional flow of factors, affects the agglomeration effect of factors, and then affects the expansion of urban scale Using the diversity index of regional dialect types and 2016 nppviirs urban night light index, this paper empirically studies the impact of dialect diversity on urban scale The measurement results show that: Dialect diversity has a significant negative impact on urban scale On average, the addition of one dialect category will lead to a 4.5% decline in the size of the city measured by the night light index 55%. A series of robustness tests and causal identification show that the estimation result in this paper is the causal relationship of robustnessfurther empirical research shows that dialect diversity mainly affects the expansion of urban scale by hindering the flow and agglomeration of labor, capital and technological factorsthe Enlightenment of this study: To build a diversified and inclusive modern city, we need to weigh the costs and benefits of cultural diversity and unity, break cultural barriers, eliminate cultural prejudices, improve social trust, and give full play to the complementary effects brought by multiculturalism

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Open Access
Original Research Articles
Shuai Shao, Guangqin Li, Jianhua Cao
City. Divers. 2023 , 4(2); doi:
Article lD: 1951
Abstract

Based on the data samples of 276 cities at prefecture level and above in China from 2000 to 2012, using dialect diversity as a proxy to measure cultural diversity, using random effect model, system generalized moment estimation, two-stage least square method and other methods, this paper conducted an empirical investigation on the impact of cultural diversity on China's urbanization for the first time. It is found that dialect diversity has a significant negative impact on urbanization rate; considering the possibility of missing variables, the influence of dialect diversity on urbanization rate is still significantly negative; after using the historical immigration as the instrumental variable of dialect diversity, this negative influence still exists, but the degree of influence has decreased. Therefore, the cultural variables represented by dialects are an important factor affecting the process of urbanization.

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Open Access
Original Research Articles
chuanyong Zhang, qimeng Cai
City. Divers. 2023 , 4(2); doi:
Article lD: 1954
Abstract

Measuring the occupational diversity and trend of Chinese cities from the perspective of the distribution of urban occupational types, and discussing the impact of urban characteristics on urban occupational diversity can provide reference for guiding urban full and high-quality employment. By using the improved Herfindahl index, panel data fixed effect model and Oaxaca blinder decomposition, it is found that the occupational diversity in Chinese cities showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing from 2002 to 2016, which was due to the adjustment of urban industrial structure and the emergence of new economy after the financial crisis; at the same time, the larger the city, the higher the administrative level and the more developed the economy, the higher the degree of occupational diversity. The conclusion of the study is helpful to intuitively understand the occupational distribution, industrial structure and division of labor in different cities, evaluate the human resource structure and economic development potential of cities, and then provide policy suggestions for different cities to formulate industrial development and human resource planning.

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Open Access
Original Research Articles
Cui Zhang
City. Divers. 2023 , 4(2); doi:
Article lD: 1956
Abstract

From the perspective of cross regional flow of human capital, this paper studies the impact and mechanism of foreign human capital on urban innovation in China, and reveals the innovation effect of foreign human capital. The theoretical research shows that the efficient allocation of innovation elements brought by foreign human capital and the diversified externalities associated with it are the source for cities to maintain innovation vitality and competitiveness. The empirical study matching the individual micro data of Chinese census with the urban patent data found that foreign human capital has a significant role in promoting urban innovation, especially in the innovation of invention patents with the highest technological content. Further research on the mechanism reveals that the externality of cultural diversity brought by foreign human capital is an important channel to promote urban innovation. Therefore, the absorption and integration of foreign labor is the key to the city full of innovation and vitality.

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Open Access
Original Research Articles
Congming Ding, Zhenlin Ji, Yu Lei, Zhenqiao Liang
City. Divers. 2023 , 4(2); doi:
Article lD: 1959
Abstract

China, as a transitional economy, faces a high level of market segmentation among administrative regions, which lowers the efficiency of resource allocation and the total factor productivity (TFP) rate. The literature has focused on the negative effects of local protectionism and administrative division on the formation of market integration in the economic growth process. However, considering that administrative districts such as prefectures usually overlap with cultural regions in China, the effects of local protectionism and administrative division on market segmentation may be overestimated because cultural diversity may also be negatively related to market integration. More importantly, diversity of dialect tends to increase the cost of communication, making it a barrier to labor migration and decreasing the level of generalized trustamong people. As a result, it may have adverse effects on the market integration process.

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