Menopause age and related challenges; Early and Late Menopause on Future diseases

Faeze Daghigh

Article ID: 2286
Vol 1, Issue 1, 2023

VIEWS - 56 (Abstract)


Most studies on menopause have focused on disorders related to sex hormone deficiency in older women. Few studies have focused on the relationship between the occurrence of diseases and the age of menopause. There is evidence that reports a higher rate of disease in women with early or late menopause.


menopause; women; sex hormone

Full Text:



1. Nabhan AF, Mburu G, Elshafeey F, et al. Women’s reproductive span: A systematic scoping review. Human Reproduction Open 2022; 2022(2): hoac005. doi: 10.1093/hropen/hoac005

2. Miro F, Parker SW, Aspinall LJ, et al. Sequential classification of endocrine stages during reproductive aging in women: The FREEDOM study. Menopause 2005; 12(3): 281–290. doi: 10.1097/01.gme.0000147018.30796.25

3. Luborsky JL, Meyer P, Sowers MF, Gold EB, Santoro N. Premature menopause in a multi-ethnic population study of the menopause transition. Human Reproduction 2003; 18(1): 199–206. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deg005

4. Brand JS, van der Schouw YT, Onland-Moret NC, et al. Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes Care 2013; 36(4): 1012–1019. doi: 10.2337/dc12-1020

5. Luoto R, Kaprio J, Uutela A. Age at natural menopause and sociodemographic status in Finland. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 139(1): 64–76. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116936

6. Naz MSG, Sayehmiri F, Kiani F, Ozgoli G. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the average age of menopause among Iranian women. Evidence Based Care Journal 2018; 8(4): 26–34. doi: 10.22038/EBCJ.2018.32369.1820

7. Ahuja M. Age of menopause and determinants of menopause age: A PAN India survey by IMS. Journal of Mid-Life Health 2016; 7(3): 126–131. doi: 10.4103/0976-7800.191012

8. Rance NE, Dacks PA, Mittelman-Smith MA, et al. Modulation of body temperature and LH secretion by hypothalamic KNDy (kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin) neurons: A novel hypothesis on the mechanism of hot flushes. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 2013; 34(3): 211–227. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2013.07.003

9. El Khoudary SR, Thurston RC. Cardiovascular implications of the menopause transition: Endogenous sex hormones and vasomotor symptoms. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 2018; 45(4): 641–661. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2018.07.006

10. Gold EB, Bromberger J, Crawford S, et al. Factors associated with age at natural menopause in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. American Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 153(9): 865–874. doi: 10.1093/aje/153.9.865

11. Cooper GS, Sandler DP. Age at natural menopause and mortality. Annals of Epidemiology 1998; 8(4): 229–235. doi: 10.1016/s1047-2797(97)00207-x

12. Anagnostis P, Christou K, Artzouchaltzi AM, et al. Early menopause and premature ovarian insufficiency are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Endocrinology 2019; 180(1): 41–50. doi: 10.1530/EJE-18-0602

13. Kok HS, Kuh D, Cooper R, et al. Cognitive function across the life course and the menopausal transition in a British birth cohort. Menopause 2006; 13(1): 19–27. doi: 10.1097/01.gme.0000196592.36711.a0

14. Mishra GD, Chung HF, Cano A, et al. EMAS position statement: predictors of premature and early natural menopause. Maturitas 2019; 123: 82–88. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2019.03.008

15. Appiah D, Nwabuo CC, Ebong IA, et al. Trends in age at natural menopause and reproductive life span among US women, 1959–2018. JAMA 2021; 325(13): 1328–1330. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.0278

16. Costanian C, McCague H, Tamim H. Age at natural menopause and its associated factors in Canada: Cross-sectional analyses from the Canadian longitudinal study on aging. Menopause 2018; 25(3): 265–272. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000990

17. Francucci CM, Ceccoli L, Caudarella R, et al. Skeletal effect of natural early menopause. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2010; 33(7 Suppl): 39–44.

18. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: Individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncology 2012;13(11): 1141–1151. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70425-4

19. Ghosh S, Naftalin J, Imrie R, Hoo WL. Natural history of uterine fibroids: A radiological perspective. Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports 2018; 7(3): 117–121. doi: 10.1007/s13669-018-0243-5

20. Ulin M, Ali M, Chaudhry ZT, et al. Uterine fibroids in menopause and perimenopause. Menopause 2020; 27(2): 238–242. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001438

21. Ossewaarde ME, Bots ML, Verbeek ALM, et al. Age at menopause, cause-specific mortality and total life expectancy. Epidemiology 2005; 16(4): 556–562. doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000165392.35273.d4


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Faeze Daghigh

License URL: